• Corpus ID: 39316544

2 Botulinum toxin : history of clinical development

  title={2 Botulinum toxin : history of clinical development},
  author={Frank Erbguth},
Unintended intoxication with botulinum toxin (botulism) occurs only rarely, but its high fatality rate makes it a great concern for those in the general public and in the medical community. In the United States an average of 110 cases of botulism are reported each year. Of these, approximately 25% are food borne, 72% are infant botulism, and the rest are wound botulism. Outbreaks of foodborne botulism involving two or more persons occur most years and are usually caused by eating contaminated… 
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Botulism: update and review.
The five clinical forms of botulism, the actions of botulinum toxins, electrodiagnostic methods, treatments, and possible future directions are discussed.
Infant botulism. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory aspects.
Clostridium botulinum organisms and toxin were identified in the feces of six infants, aged 5 to 20 weeks, who had illnesses clinically consistent with botulism, and a characteristic electromyographic pattern termed "brief, small, abundant, motor-unit action potentials" was observed.
Syndrome of botulism in infancy: clinical and electrophysiologic study.
Two infants are reported on whose clinical course and electrophysiological findings were consistent with botulism and from whom botulinal toxin was identified in stool.
On the discovery of Clostridium botulinum.
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  • Medicine
    Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 1999
A description is given of a food intoxication in 1895 at Ellezelles, a village in Belgium. As a result 3 persons died within a few days and others became seriously ill. A thorough investigation by E.
Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory aspects of wound botulism.
A diagnosis of wound botulism should be considered when characteristic neurologic abnormalities are present and no food item can be implicated epidemiologically, use of proper laboratory methods for detection of botulinal toxin and identification of clostridial isolates is imperative.
Historical aspects of botulinum toxin
Therapeutic chemodenervation with botulinum toxin type A has proved to be effective and safe in the treatment of conditions caused by focal contractions of skeletal muscles, such as strabismus, hemifacial spasm, focal dystonias, spasticity, and some autonomic disorders.
Historical notes on botulism, Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, and the idea of the therapeutic use of the toxin
  • F. Erbguth
  • Medicine
    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • 2004
Today's botulinum toxin treatment was pioneered by Alan B. Scott and Edward J. Schantz, and some ancient dietary laws and taboos may reflect some knowledge about the life‐threatening consumption of poisoned food.
From poison to remedy: the chequered history of botulinum toxin
  • F. Erbguth
  • Medicine
    Journal of Neural Transmission
  • 2007
The toxin has been used to treat a wide variety of conditions associated with muscular hyperactivity, glandular hypersecretions and pain, and was pioneered by Alan B. Scott and Edward J. Schantz in the early 1970s, when the type-A serotype was used in medicine to correct strabismus.
In a previous report 1 it was shown that the formation of toxin by the Bacillus Botulinus is not dependent upon the presence of animal protein in the culture medium, but that in purely vegetable
The Occurrence of Bacillus botulinus in Nature.