• Corpus ID: 39316544

2 Botulinum toxin : history of clinical development

@inproceedings{Erbguth20082BT,
  title={2 Botulinum toxin : history of clinical development},
  author={Frank Erbguth},
  year={2008}
}
Unintended intoxication with botulinum toxin (botulism) occurs only rarely, but its high fatality rate makes it a great concern for those in the general public and in the medical community. In the United States an average of 110 cases of botulism are reported each year. Of these, approximately 25% are food borne, 72% are infant botulism, and the rest are wound botulism. Outbreaks of foodborne botulism involving two or more persons occur most years and are usually caused by eating contaminated… 
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TLDR
The five clinical forms of botulism, the actions of botulinum toxins, electrodiagnostic methods, treatments, and possible future directions are discussed.
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TLDR
Clostridium botulinum organisms and toxin were identified in the feces of six infants, aged 5 to 20 weeks, who had illnesses clinically consistent with botulism, and a characteristic electromyographic pattern termed "brief, small, abundant, motor-unit action potentials" was observed.
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TLDR
A diagnosis of wound botulism should be considered when characteristic neurologic abnormalities are present and no food item can be implicated epidemiologically, use of proper laboratory methods for detection of botulinal toxin and identification of clostridial isolates is imperative.
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TLDR
Therapeutic chemodenervation with botulinum toxin type A has proved to be effective and safe in the treatment of conditions caused by focal contractions of skeletal muscles, such as strabismus, hemifacial spasm, focal dystonias, spasticity, and some autonomic disorders.
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TLDR
Today's botulinum toxin treatment was pioneered by Alan B. Scott and Edward J. Schantz, and some ancient dietary laws and taboos may reflect some knowledge about the life‐threatening consumption of poisoned food.
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TLDR
The toxin has been used to treat a wide variety of conditions associated with muscular hyperactivity, glandular hypersecretions and pain, and was pioneered by Alan B. Scott and Edward J. Schantz in the early 1970s, when the type-A serotype was used in medicine to correct strabismus.
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