19th century London dust-yards: a case study in closed-loop resource efficiency.

@article{Velis200919thCL,
  title={19th century London dust-yards: a case study in closed-loop resource efficiency.},
  author={Costas A. Velis and David C. Wilson and Christopher R. Cheeseman},
  journal={Waste management},
  year={2009},
  volume={29 4},
  pages={
          1282-90
        }
}
The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after… Expand
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