15 Years of Research on Redirected Walking in Immersive Virtual Environments

@article{Nilsson201815YO,
  title={15 Years of Research on Redirected Walking in Immersive Virtual Environments},
  author={Niels Christian Nilsson and Tabitha C. Peck and G. Bruder and Eric Hodgson and Stefania Serafin and Mary C. Whitton and Frank Steinicke and Evan Suma Rosenberg},
  journal={IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications},
  year={2018},
  volume={38},
  pages={44-56}
}
Virtual reality users wearing head-mounted displays can experience the illusion of walking in any direction for infinite distance while, in reality, they are walking a curvilinear path in physical space. This is accomplished by introducing unnoticeable rotations to the virtual environment-a technique called redirected walking. This paper gives an overview of the research that has been performed since redirected walking was first practically demonstrated 15 years ago. 
Interaction Based Redirected Walking
TLDR
This work evaluates the detection threshold for discrete manipulation rotations to reorient the users in the scene during interactions and proposes a novel steer-to-action technique that helps game developers to improve VR games experiences. Expand
Redirected Walking in VR
TLDR
This research highlights the need to design large virtual environments that contain several interior obstacles such as furniture, cables or computers to prevent discontinuity or even dangers while naturally walking in VR. Expand
Redirection Using Alignment
TLDR
This work formalizes the notion of alignment: the concept of comparing the physical and virtual environments according to some feature present in both environments and presents an example of how alignment can be used to yield significant improvements in VR locomotion with redirected walking. Expand
The Space Bender: Supporting Natural Walking via Overt Manipulation of the Virtual Environment
TLDR
The Space Bender is designed, a natural walking technique for room-scale VR that builds on the idea of overtly manipulating the Virtual Environment by "bending" the geometry whenever the user comes in proximity of a physical boundary. Expand
Safe Walking Zones: Visual Guidance for Redirected Walking in Confined Real-World Spaces
TLDR
A user interface approach that supports natural walking in a potentially infinite virtual scene while confined to a considerably restricted physical workspace is proposed and a circular redirection approach when the user leaves this safety volume is designed. Expand
A survey of real locomotion techniques for immersive virtual reality applications on head-mounted displays
TLDR
This paper categorizes interaction techniques for real locomotion in VR into: unmediated, warnings, reorientation/resetting, scaling, redirection, and dynamic VE, which represent fundamentally different approaches toreal locomotion and user action feedback. Expand
Redirected Smooth Mappings for Multiuser Real Walking in Virtual Reality
TLDR
To keep multiple users away from the overlaps of the mapped virtual scenes, this work presents an automatic collision avoidance technique based on dynamic virtual avatars, producing as little influence as possible on users’ walking experiences. Expand
Shrinking Circles: Adaptation to Increased Curvature Gain in Redirected Walking
TLDR
The increase of the detection threshold suggests that participants adapt to the manipulation and stronger curvature gains can be applied in RDW, and therefore improves its applicability in such situations. Expand
Multi-User Redirected Walking and Resetting Using Artificial Potential Fields
TLDR
C categorically new RDW and resetting algorithms based on the use of artificial potential fields that “push” users away from obstacles and other users are introduced. Expand
Concept for a Virtual Reality Robot Ground Simulator
TLDR
A concept for a VR robot ground simulator allowing to walk on steep ground or even staircase and which can simulate different undergrounds like sand, grass, or concrete is presented. Expand
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References

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Generalised Algorithms for Redirected Walking in Virtual Environments
TLDR
The original redirected walking algorithm is extended to increase its applicability to a wider range of VEs and results are presented from simulations of these algorithms which provide guidance for development of an immersive virtual reality system based on redirected walking. Expand
Redirected walking to explore virtual environments: Assessing the potential for spatial interference
TLDR
What, to the authors' knowledge, is the first generalized redirected walking algorithm that is independent of any task or environment structure, and can adaptively steer users in real time as they engage in spontaneous, unconstrained navigation is implemented. Expand
Application of redirected walking in room-scale VR
TLDR
It is found that it is possible to decrease this radius and to apply RDW to room-scale VR, i. Expand
Redirected Walking
TLDR
This dissertation develops Redirection, discusses its theoretical and physiological underpinnings, and presents results to show that it can be used to make the user turn themselves, without causing the user to be aware of Redirection and without unacceptably increasing the user's level of simulator sickness. Expand
Towards context-sensitive reorientation for real walking in virtual reality
TLDR
This work proposes an approach that integrates into the virtual world narrative to draw users' attention and to cause them to temporarily alter their course to avoid going off bounds, efficiently reorienting the user while maintaining the user's sense of immersion. Expand
Estimation of Detection Thresholds for Redirected Walking Techniques
TLDR
In psychophysical experiments with a two-alternative forced-choice task, it is quantified how much humans can unknowingly be redirected on physical paths that are different from the visually perceived paths. Expand
Exploring large virtual environments with an HMD when physical space is limited
TLDR
This paper presents three methods of "resetting" users when they reach the physical limits of the HMD tracking system, using people's natural ability to spatially update to explore a large virtual environment on foot when the size of the physical surroundings is small. Expand
A taxonomy for deploying redirection techniques in immersive virtual environments
TLDR
A novel taxonomy is presented that separates redirection techniques according to their geometric flexibility versus the likelihood that they will be noticed by users and suggests that reorientation with change blindness illusions may give the impression of exploring a more expansive environment than continuous rotation techniques, but at the cost of negatively impacting spatial knowledge acquisition. Expand
Performance of Redirected Walking Algorithms in a Constrained Virtual World
TLDR
This work presents a comparison of generalized RDW algorithm performance within a constrained virtual world and experimental results indicate that the steer-to-orbit keeps users in a smaller area than the steer -to-center algorithm. Expand
Flexible spaces: Dynamic layout generation for infinite walking in virtual environments
TLDR
Flexible spaces is introduced - a novel redirection technique that enables infinite real walking in virtual environments that do not require replication of real world layouts and change blindness by employing procedural layout generation. Expand
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