1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in supplements and geranium products: natural or synthetic?

@article{Zhang201213DimethylamylamineI,
  title={1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in supplements and geranium products: natural or synthetic?},
  author={Ying Zhang and Ross M. Woods and Zachary S. Breitbach and Daniel W. Armstrong},
  journal={Drug testing and analysis},
  year={2012},
  volume={4 12},
  pages={
          986-90
        }
}
1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant existing in various pre-workout supplements and often labelled as part of geranium plants. The safety and origin of DMAA in these supplements is the subject of intense debate. In this study, the enantiomeric and diastereomeric ratios of two different known synthetic DMAA compounds, as well as the total concentrations of DMAA and its stereoisomeric ratios in 13 different supplements, were determined by gas chromatography. The stereoisomeric ratios of… 

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Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements.

This study indicates DMAA contained in DS is of a synthetic origin and is not present in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium; thus the 'natural' origin and use of DMAA as an ingredient inDS is not substantiated.

Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials

Differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials.

Evaluation of the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine in Pelargonium Leaves and Essential Oils by Mass Spectrometric and Chromatographic Methods

Abstract1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is known to be added to dietary supplements from synthetic sources and, presumably, from natural geranium oil. However, the natural occurrence of DMAA in geranium

Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations

An extraction method combined with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is used to determine 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-dimethylamylamine concentrations in geranium plants with both external calibration and standard addition method.

Rapid assessment of the illegal presence of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in sports nutrition and dietary supplements using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

The developed NMR methodology was applied for the analysis of 16 products, from which 9 samples were found positive and can be recommended for routine use in food testing, customs or doping control laboratories.

Enantiomeric separation of 1,3‐dimethylamylamine by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection using a dual‐selector system

The CE method employing an indirect UV detection for the enantioseparation of 1,3‐dimethylamylamine (DMAA), widely used in various preworkout and dietary supplements labeled as a constituent of geranium extract, was developed and applied for the determination of the stereoisomeric composition ofDMAA in commercial dietary supplements to verify the potential natural origin of DMAA.

Scientific opinion on the regulatory status of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA).

Oral preparations with >4 mg DMAA per dose unit should be considered as effective as a bronchodilator and food supplements that exceed that limit are in fact subject to the Medicines Act and require licensing.

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