1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 inhibits proliferation and decreases production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, thrombopoietin, VEGF, and angiogenin by human annulus cells in vitro.


STUDY DESIGN Human lumbar anulus tissue and cultured human lumbar anulus cells were used in retrospective studies of the immunocytochemical localization of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in disc tissue, and of the in vitro effects of the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, on anulus cell proliferation, cytokine, and proteoglycan (PG) production. 24… (More)
DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181695d59


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