*t to k: An Austronesian Sound Change Revisited

  title={*t to k: An Austronesian Sound Change Revisited},
  author={Robert Blust},
  journal={Oceanic Linguistics},
  pages={365 - 410}
  • Robert Blust
  • Published 1 December 2004
  • Linguistics
  • Oceanic Linguistics
Although the change of *t to k in Hawaiian has been known and commented on for over 150 years, the widespread driftlike character of this development within Austronesian as a whole has generally gone unappreciated. This paper examines 20 historically independent instances of a *t > k change in at least 43 languages. Twelve of these changes are confined to Oceanic languages, seven to languages of eastern Indonesia, and one to western Indonesia. Almost without exception, the change *t > k has… 

Tables from this paper

Some Observations on Proto-Austronesian *t to k

1. INTRODUCTION. (1) This note provides information on another language that exhibits the PMP *t > k change discussed in Blust (2004), namely Makuva of East Timor, and suggests that this change

Austronesian: A Sleeping Giant?

  • R. Blust
  • Linguistics
    Lang. Linguistics Compass
  • 2011
The Austronesian language family contains nearly 20% of the world’s languages, and extends more than halfway around the globe, from Madagascar to Easter Island, and has developed a wide variety of innovative typological features.

The descent of words

  • Q. Atkinson
  • Linguistics
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2013
Systematic sound correspondences between many such words tell us that these languages have evolved from a common ancestor to form part of the Austronesian language family and Bouchard-Cote et al. (2) automate this process by using probabilistic models of sound change to trace the evolution of thousands of words across more than 600 Austronesia languages.

On the Development of the Proto–Northern Jê Rhotic in Panará Historical Phonology

Comparative evidence is provided for a number of developments in the historical phonology of Panara, a Je language spoken in central Brazil, in particular for the reflexes of the rhotic *ɾ

On the Development of the Proto–Northern Jê Rhotic in Panará Historical Phonology

Comparative evidence is provided for a number of developments in the historical phonology of Panará, a Jê language spoken in central Brazil, in particular for the reflexes of the rhotic *ɾ

The Position of Enggano within Austronesian

Questions have been raised about the precise genetic affiliation of the Enggano language of the Barrier Islands, Sumatra. Such questions have been largely based on Enggano’s lexicon, which shows

Òma Lóngh Historical Phonology

The phonology of Óma Lóngh Kenyah as described by Soriente (2006) shows strinking typological difference from its nearest relatives. Contrary to a pattern of avoidance that is almost universal in

The Western Malayo-Polynesian Problem

Abstract:Since the 1970s, Austronesian higher-order subgrouping has often included a Western Malayo-Polynesian (WMP) node within the larger Malayo-Polyne- sian (MP) group. WMP includes all

*KL > TL sound change in Germanic and elsewhere: Descriptions, explanations, and implications

Abstract An underdescribed sound change in Germanic is the shift of initial kl and gl to tl and dl respectively. Though not widely known, KL > TL has occurred more than once in the history of

Odd conditions: Context-sensitive sound change in unexpected contexts

Since the 19th century linguists have expected to find conditioned sound changes in environments that make phonetic sense: consonants palatalize adjacent to front vowels, back vowels front if a front



From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects: Two Thousand Years of Language Contact and Change (review)

As early as 192 a.d., Chinese dynastic records refer to “Lin-yi,” a powerful Indianized state that 3ourished in coastal mainland southeast Asia south of the Vietnamese in the Red River delta and

Notes on a Grammar of the Language of Ongtong Java

  • H. I. Hogbin
  • Geology
    Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
  • 1930
To the north-east of the Solomon Islands lies a ring of coral islands surrounding a lagoon about 100 miles in circumference. The nearest land is the northern tip of the island of Ysabel, which is

The linguistic position of South Eastern Papua

The thesis is an attempt to trace the movements of the Indonesian immigrants who have introduced into South Eastern Papua those elements of language and culture known as Melanesian. It is divided

The Voices of Eden: A History of Hawaiian Language Studies

How did outsiders first become aware of the Hawaiian language? How were they and Hawaiians able to understand each other? How was Hawaiian recorded and analyzed in the early decades after European

The Synchronic and Diachronic Behavior of Plops, Squeaks, Croaks, Sighs, and Moans

  • M. Mithun
  • Linguistics
    International Journal of American Linguistics
  • 1982
0. It has been noted on a number of occasions that exceptions to regular sound change seem to be concentrated in a particular portion of the lexicon.2 Words for noises, animal cries, mental states,

Toward a better understanding of the indigenous languages of southwestern Maluku : Papers on languages of Maluku

Relatively little is known about the indigenous languages in southwestern Maluku, Indonesia. The reasons are many, not the least of which is the logistical remoteness of these nineteen islands. This

The Sound Pattern of English

Since this classic work in phonology was published in 1968, there has been no other book that gives as broad a view of the subject, combining generally applicable theoretical contributions with

The Languages of the Eastern Louisiade Archipelago

  • S. H. Ray
  • Geology
    Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
  • 1937
The vocabularies of the present notice are due to Dr. W. M. Strong. They were collected at Panakrusima (Earle Island) in the east-centralpart of the Calyados Chain, about 48 miles south-east of

Notes on a Chipewyan Dialect

  • M. Haas
  • Linguistics
    International Journal of American Linguistics
  • 1968
1. In the summer of 1967, while teaching at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, I had the opportunity of visiting Camsell Hospital, where Indians from various parts of western Canada are brought for

The Sound Shape of Language

"Reading this volume transported me back to Harvard and MIT lecture halls of the 1960s, where weekly Roman Jakobson would spellbind his audience (this reviewer included), developing his vision of