“You Tweet Like a Girl!”

  title={“You Tweet Like a Girl!”},
  author={Heather K. Evans and Jennifer Hayes Clark},
  journal={American Politics Research},
  pages={326 - 352}
We investigate the Twitter activity of all congressional candidates leading up to the 2012 U.S. House elections to assess whether there are significant differences in the tone and content of the tweets from male and female candidates. We argue that the electoral environment will have a significant effect over whether candidates engage in negative tweeting, address political issues, and discuss so-called “women’s issues” on Twitter. We find that gender has both a direct and contextual effect on… 

Tables from this paper

Do women only talk about "female issues"? Gender and issue discussion on Twitter
It is shown that women do talk more about “female issues” than men, but do not only focus on these issues, as is evidenced by that issue being one of the most discussed on Twitter by female representatives during both the election and seven months later.
Norms and rage: Gender and social media in the 2018 U.S. mid-term elections
Do Campaigns “Go Negative” on Twitter?
It is argued that Twitter is a conducive social media forum for policy-based messages due to its highly partisan nature and this supports the innovation hypothesis and suggests there is still much to be learned from this tool.
Awkward Independents: What Are Third-Party Candidates Doing on Twitter?
ABSTRACT Previous literature on partisan campaign behavior shows that third-party candidates do not have the same presence online as major-party candidates, and these differences have been linked
Let’s Talk about Sex: Examining the Factors Influencing Congressional Response to #MeToo on Twitter
ABSTRACT This article examines the factors that influence whether members of Congress tweet about the #MeToo movement. Whereas social-identity theory suggests that congresswomen would be more likely
As the Tweet, so the Reply?: Gender Bias in Digital Communication with Politicians
It is found that politicians' communication on Twitter is driven by party identity rather than gender, but female politicians are significantly more likely to be reduced to their gender rather than to their profession compared to male politicians.
Who is in the picture? The gender composition of images of Congress in party caucus Twitter feeds and online media
ABSTRACT Visual portrayals of politics can affect public opinion. However, little work has investigated visual portrayals of Congress and their impact on perceptions of group representation. Though
Addressing Women and Minorities on Social Media by the 2016 U.S. Presidential Candidates
Donald Trump’s bombastic statements regarding women and minorities were a constant theme in the 2016 presidential election and attracted attention from both the mainstream media and his opponent,
Where Are All of the Women? Untangling the Effects of Representation, Participation, and Preferences on Gender Differences in Political Press Coverage
The author examines why female politicians continue to be underrepresented in the press by measuring how structural inequalities, engagement in traditional and disruptive dialogue, and gender


By covering male and female candidates differently, the news media may influence the success of female candidates for public office. A content analysis was conducted to assess potentially important
Women, War, and Winning Elections: Gender Stereotyping in the Post-September 11th Era
Scores of political science studies reveal that female candidates fare as well as their male counterparts. But the percentage of citizens willing to support a woman presidential party nominee has
Gender Differences in Campaign Messages: The Political Advertisements of Men and Women Candidates for U.S. Senate
In order to see whether men and women emphasize different messages in their campaigns, I examine the televised political advertisements of 38 candidates for the U.S. Senate between 1984 and 1986. In
Twitter Style: An Analysis of How House Candidates Used Twitter in Their 2012 Campaigns
ABSTRACT This article examines how House candidates used Twitter during the 2012 campaign. Using a content analysis of every tweet from each candidate for the House in the final two months before the
Twitter Bites and Romney : Examining the Rhetorical Situation of the 2012 Presidential Election in 140 Characters
In 2008, Barack Obama revolutionized the digital campaign with Twitter and blogs. Now, in 2012, Twitter is a powerful venue for politicians, and Republican candidate Mitt Romney has used Twitter in
Women Running “as Women”: Candidate Gender, Campaign Issues, and Voter-Targeting Strategies
Previous research has demonstrated that voter stereotypes about gender place certain strategic imperatives on female candidates. This study examines the effects of the interplay of candidate gender
Bad for Men, Better for Women: The Impact of Stereotypes During Negative Campaigns
In this paper, we examine whether the impact of negative advertising on citizens’ evaluations of candidates depends on the gender of the candidates. Given common gender stereotypes, we expect
The tweet smell of celebrity success: Explaining variation in Twitter adoption among a diverse group of young adults
It is found that African Americans are more likely to use the service as are those with higher internet skills and interest in celebrity and entertainment news is a significant predictor of Twitter use mediating the effect of race among a diverse group of young adults.
Do Women Candidates Play to Gender Stereotypes? Do Men Candidates Play to Women? Candidate Sex and Issues Priorities on Campaign Websites
While previous research indicates that voters hold gender-based stereotypes of women and men candidates for elected office, the degree to which candidate actions contribute to these views is less
The Impact of Gender Stereotyped Evaluations on Support for Women Candidates
In 2009, women are still dramatically underrepresented in elected office in the United States. Though the reasons for this are complex, public attitudes toward this situation are no doubt of