“The Greatest Tool of the Devil”: Mamie, Malcolm X, and the PolitiX of the Black Madonna in Black Churches and the Nation of Islam in the United States

  title={“The Greatest Tool of the Devil”: Mamie, Malcolm X, and the PolitiX of the Black Madonna in Black Churches and the Nation of Islam in the United States},
  author={Eboni Marshall Turman},
  journal={Journal of Africana Religions},
  pages={130 - 150}
This article endeavors to attend to the yoke of Afro-patriarchy, gender conflict, and faith in Black churches and in the pre-1975 Nation of Islam, challenging some recent arguments that disingenuously distinguish between patriarchy in Black churches and patriarchy in the Nation of Islam. The article examines the correlation between the gender politics of Malcolm X’s early life and ministry and gender discrimination in Black churches, thereby suggesting continuity between Malik Shabazz’s legacy… 
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