“Made in Brazil”: Human Dispersal of the Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) in Ancient Amazonia1

@article{Shepard2011MadeIB,
  title={“Made in Brazil”: Human Dispersal of the Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) in Ancient Amazonia1},
  author={Glenn H. Shepard and H. F. Ram{\'i}rez},
  journal={Economic Botany},
  year={2011},
  volume={65},
  pages={44-65}
}
Abstract“Made in Brazil”: Human Dispersal of the Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) in Ancient Amazonia. The Brazil nut, Bertholletia excelsa, is a colossal tree of terra firme forest whose seeds represent the most important non-timber forest product in Amazonia. Its peculiarly inefficient dispersal strategy and discontinuous distribution have led some to hypothesize anthropogenic origins, but evidence to date has been inconclusive. Here we present results of a multidisciplinary… 
The distribution of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) through time: from range contraction in glacial refugia, over human-mediated expansion, to anthropogenic climate change
Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) is one of the most important non-timber forest producing tree species in the Amazon. One aspect related to the sustainability of Brazil nut that has so far received
Growth rings of Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) as a living record of historical human disturbance in Central Amazonia
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the expansion of a post-colonial political center from the middle of the 18th century onwards coincided with a reduction in recruitment of B. excelsa, and this hiatus suggests the interruption of indigenous management practices, probably due to the collapse of pre-Columbian societies.
Anthropogenic Landscape in Southeastern Amazonia: Contemporary Impacts of Low-Intensity Harvesting and Dispersal of Brazil Nuts by the Kayapó Indigenous People
TLDR
The results show not only that low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó people does not reduce recruitment of seedlings, but that harvesting and/or associated activities conducted by traditional harvesters may benefit B. excelsa beyond grove borders.
Diversity of Treegourd (Crescentia cujete) Suggests Introduction and Prehistoric Dispersal Routes into Amazonia
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It is concluded that treegourds introduced into the Amazon Basin and Mexico share a common ancestry with a currently unknown origin, and the patterns of genetic diversity across Amazonia allow two hypotheses of the routes of introduction: a northwestern introduction into the Negro and Solimoes Rivers, and an eastern introduction from the coastal Guianas into theAmazonas River.
The evolving role of Bertholletia excelsa in Amazonia: contributing to local livelihoods and forest conservation
In the last three decades, Brazil nut ( Bertholletia excelsa ) has emerged as a cornerstone species for Amazonia. This has gone hand-in-hand with the creation of extractive reserves, an alternative
Phylogeography of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia): integrative evidence for pre-Columbian anthropogenic dispersal
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The estimated dispersal time required for the species to reach its MOD from its putative refugium without human help is not consistent with the rapid and recent expansion of the species, which argues that humans played an important role in expanding the distribution of the currently endangered species.
Landscapes with Araucaria in South America: evidence for a cultural
South American Araucaria species include Araucaria araucana (Mol.) C. Koch (Argentina and Chile) and Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze (Brazil and Argentina). Both species produce nut-like
Domestication in Motion: Macrofossils of Pre-Colonial Brazilian Nuts, Palms and Other Amazonian Planted Tree Species Found in the Upper Purus
ABSTRACT Evidence from several earthwork-building societies has recently been discovered in Amazonia that challenges existing theories about precolonial, human-environment interactions. Combining
Influence of conspecific negative distance-dependence and fire events on recruitment of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Peruvian Amazon
TLDR
These findings suggest that a better management of fallow land and more controlled use of fire in land uses neighboring Brazil nut stands could be a cost-effective manner to increase recruitment rates.
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