“Just Cause” or Just Politics?

  title={“Just Cause” or Just Politics?},
  author={J. Cramer},
  journal={Armed Forces \& Society},
  pages={178 - 201}
  • J. Cramer
  • Published 2006
  • Political Science
  • Armed Forces & Society
This article investigates the 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama using qualitative tests for diversionarywar proposed by another researcher, Ryan C. Hendrickson. The author finds that this use of force was likely a “type” of diversionary war, in that it was likely motivated by a need to solve “domestic political problems” rather than to achieve strategic goals. Several proposals to further develop qualitative tests for diversionary war are advanced. 
Diversionary Theory of War and the Case Study Design
This article examines President Clinton’s decisions to launch military actions against Iraq in June 1993 and Kosovo in 1999. This study represents an attempt to test the descriptive accuracy andExpand
Changing the Conversation in Washington? An Illustrative Case Study of President Trump’s Air Strikes on Syria, 2017
ABSTRACT This analysis uses case study methodology to further the understanding of the diversionary theory of war in specific cases. It employs a model consisting of five propositions that build uponExpand
President Clinton's Decision to Launch Operation Bushwacker Against Iraq in 1993: National Security Considerations or Diversionary Tactics?
An examination of President Clinton's decision to launch military actions against Iraq in June 1993 is largely absent in professional defense literature. This article represents an attempt to testExpand
The Democratic Peace through an Interaction of Domestic Institutions and Norms
In an attempt to explain the democratic peace phenomenon, existing studies postulate institutional and normative models but treat them as contending and mutually exclusive explanations. This approachExpand
Patterns of Empire: The British and American Empires, 1688 to the Present
1. Imperial paths to power 2. Colonial rules 3. Hegemonies and empires 4. Imperial forms, global fields 5. Weary titans: declining powers, new imperialism 6. The dynamics of imperialism.
Why UW: factoring in the decision point for unconventional warfare
Abstract : There has been a dramatic unconventional warfare (UW) renaissance in recent years. Much of the published material on the subject has been focused on what unconventional warfare is,Expand
Diversionary American Military Actions?: American Military Strikes on Grenada and Iraq
Research on potential diversionary uses of military force continues to generate widespread scholarly attention. New measures, novel databases, and an increasing internationalization of this researchExpand
Patterns of Empire by Julian Go
  • J. Go
  • Political Science, History
  • 2011
Patterns of Empire: Index


Clinton's Military Strikes in 1998: Diversionary Uses of Force?
Much research addresses the possibility of "diversionary uses of force" by American presidents. Nearly all of it employs aggreated time-series data sets, testing for the relevance of factors such asExpand
The Myth of the Diversionary Use of Force by American Presidents
One of the most intriguing claims that has been made about the behavior of American presidents is that they have been motivated by deteriorating political conditions at home to engage in conflictExpand
Behavior, society, and nuclear war
This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion,Expand
Domestic Political Vulnerability and International Disputes
The proposition that domestic political vulnerability provides an incentive for leaders to engage in international conflict has been widely accepted because of appealing logic and anecdotal support.Expand
Presidential Decision Making and the Political Use of Military Force
During the Cold War American presidents have used military force in support of U.S. foreign policy over 200 times (Blechman and Kaplan, 1978; Zelikow, 1986). In order to explain and predict thisExpand
Throughout the post–World War II period the president has been called upon to make decisions concerning the use of force as a political instrument. The explanation that is offered is based upon aExpand
Divorcing The Dictator: America's Bungled Affair with Noriega
Last resort Bush's recurring nightmare the abandoned child a spy is born the not-so-loyal servant the Noriega underworld the Carter cover-up the arrogance of power the Spadafora killing the BarlettaExpand
The Panama invasion revisited: lessons for the use of force in the post Cold War era
The 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama was the first American use of force since 1945 that was unrelated to the cold war. It was also the first large-scale use of American troops abroad since Vietnam andExpand
United States policy in Latin America : a decade of crisis and challenge
About the previous edition: 'A gem, an authoritative handbook on U.S. policy focusing on the crucial conflicts of the past twenty-five years' - "Foreign Affairs". 'The contributors probe theExpand
The Noriega Years: U.S.-Panamanian Relations, 1981-1990
In December 1989, the United States launched an invasion of Panama designed to decapitate the Panama Defense Force (PDF), install a civilian government, and apprehend General Manuel Noriega. AExpand