“Do You Know What It Feels Like to Drown?”

  title={“Do You Know What It Feels Like to Drown?”},
  author={Kristie A. Thomas and Manisha Joshi and Susan B. Sorenson},
  journal={Psychology of Women Quarterly},
  pages={124 - 137}
Strangulation is a unique and particularly gendered form of nonfatal intimate partner violence, affecting 10 times as many women as men. Medical research documents multiple negative health outcomes of such victimization, and in the past decade nearly 30 U.S. states have enacted laws making nonfatal strangulation a felony. We extended prior work by using grounded theory in a qualitative study to explore women’s experiences of, thoughts about, and reactions to being strangled. Each of the 17… 

Coercive Control Between Intimate Partners: An Application to Nonfatal Strangulation

Preliminary findings support the further exploration of treatment and intervention efforts for reducing nonfatal strangulation and show the highly gendered nature of this violent behavior, noting that men were significantly more likely than women to persist in nonf fatal strangulation.


  • Psychology
  • 2019
Strangulation is different to other types of physical violence as it often leaves no visible injuries, and is frequently motivated by coercive control. Few studies have explored nonfatal

Nonfatal Strangulation in a Sample of Domestically Violent Stalkers: The Importance of Recognizing Coercively Controlling Behaviors

Strangulation is different to other types of physical violence as it often leaves no visible injuries and is frequently motivated by coercive control. Few studies have explored nonfatal strangulation

Improving Identification of Strangulation Injuries in Domestic Violence: Pilot Data From a Researcher–Practitioner Collaboration

Results highlight the gendered nature of strangulation as well as the importance of practitioners and researchers critically reflecting on issues within the criminal justice system in an effort to redress inadequacies, hold offenders accountable, and save lives.

Nonfatal Strangulation (NFS) and Intimate Partner Violence: a Brief Overview

The aim of this paper is to provide an overview for health care providers, mental health clinicians and advocates regarding the physical, neurological and psychological sequelae following NFS, post-Intimate Partner Violence.

Women’s stories of non-fatal strangulation: Informing the criminal justice response

Non-fatal strangulation is commonly reported by women who have experienced intimate partner violence and it has been identified as both an immediate risk to health and life but also a risk for future

Accounting for Multiple Nonfatal Strangulation in Intimate Partner Violence Risk Assessment

Evidence-based adaptation of the DA and DA-I may assist practitioners to assess for and intervene in dangerous IPV cases and increase the predictive validity slightly, but not significantly.

Living under siege : women's narratives of psychological violence within coercively controlling intimate partner relationships : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

Good relationships feel good. They feel right. They don't hurt. (Michelle Obama, 2016). As a global epidemic, the violence of women enacted through gendered social power relations of inequality,

"I have lost everything": Trade-offs of seeking safety from intimate partner violence.

This study explored safety-related trade-offs among a convenience sample of 301 female survivors seeking DV services across 3 states in the Northeast region of the United States and suggested that an emphasis on safety over other needs can force survivors into a zero-sum trap of painful and detrimental trade-off.



“I Didn't Know I Could Turn Colors”: Health Problems and Health Care Experiences of Women Strangled by an Intimate Partner

Focus groups and interviews were conducted as part of a practice–research engagement with a domestic violence shelter to increase the relatively little that is known about strangulation survivors.

Survey results of women who have been strangled while in an abusive relationship.

Battered Women Who Were “Being Killed and Survived It”: Straight Talk From Survivors

  • K. Farr
  • Psychology
    Violence and Victims
  • 2002
Findings from police reports and interviews with women who have survived an attempted domestic homicide revealed patterns in their experiences and sources of distress that led them to become convinced that they must rely on their “inner strength” to get on with their lives.

Could we have known? A qualitative analysis of data from women who survived an attempted homicide by an intimate partner

Clinicians should not be falsely reassured by a woman's sense of safety, by the lack of a history of severe violence, or by the presence of few classic risk factors for homicide, as efforts to reduce femicide risk that are targeted only at those women seeking help for violence-related problems may miss potential victims.

The Differential Effects of Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence

Data from the National Violence Against Women Survey show that the two major forms of husband violence toward their wives (intimate terrorism and situational couple violence) have different effects

Non-fatal strangulation is an important risk factor for homicide of women.

Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: two forms of violence against women

This article tackles two distinct types of couple violence occurring within families in the US and other Western countries. A review of data from a large sample survey and of qualitative and

Risk Assessments by Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: Predictors of Risk Perceptions and Comparison to an Actuarial Measure

Predictors of women’s risk assessment and differences in factors linked to victim and actuarial risk assessments in a large sample of women shortly after the arrest of their male partner for IPV are explored.

Risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study.

There are identifiable risk factors for intimate partner femicides and they include perpetrator's access to a gun and previous threat with a weapon, perpetrator's stepchild in the home, and estrangement, especially from a controlling partner.

Review and Analysis of Laws Related to Strangulation in 50 States

The authors recommend that all states develop policies to improve prosecution of strangulation, include strangulation in their criminal codes, and use language that includes all potential victims.