“Democracy by Undemocratic Means”?

@article{Hagopian1990DemocracyBU,
  title={“Democracy by Undemocratic Means”?},
  author={Frances Hagopian},
  journal={Comparative Political Studies},
  year={1990},
  volume={23},
  pages={147 - 170}
}
  • Frances Hagopian
  • Published 1990
  • Economics, Political Science
  • Comparative Political Studies
Why has Brazil failed to develop strong democratic institutions, despite widespread opposition to authoritarianism and support for civilian rule in the 1980s? This article argues that the political pacts bargained by elites that made the regime transition possible limited the extension of democracy. By restoring to old regime elites many sources of their political power as the price for their support for democratization, political pacts left the military with a substantial degree of formal and… Expand
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This dissertation charts the persistence of the traditional political elite in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, through the twentieth century, focusing primarily on the period of authoritarian ruleExpand
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An array of internationally noted scholars examines the process of democratization in southern Europe and Latin America. They provide new interpretations of both current and historical efforts ofExpand
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