‘Travail et progrès’: Obligatory ‘Educational’ Labour in the Belgian Congo, 1933–60

  title={‘Travail et progr{\`e}s’: Obligatory ‘Educational’ Labour in the Belgian Congo, 1933–60},
  author={V{\'i}ctor Fern{\'a}ndez Soriano},
  journal={Journal of Contemporary History},
  pages={292 - 314}
The authorities of the Belgian Congo imposed a series of compulsory workloads to the local communities under the argument that these tasks contributed to the ‘education' of the native populations, which they called ‘Travaux d'ordre éducatif' (TOE). Such workloads represented the main legal form of forced labour which existed in the Belgian Congo from their creation in 1933 until independence in 1960. Unlike what happened in most colonial empires, these workloads were not abolished after the…