‘Seed and soil’ revisited: mechanisms of site-specific metastasis

  title={‘Seed and soil’ revisited: mechanisms of site-specific metastasis},
  author={Ian R. Hart},
  journal={Cancer and Metastasis Reviews},
  • I. Hart
  • Published 2004
  • Medicine
  • Cancer and Metastasis Reviews
SummaryClinical studies have shown that malignant tumors frequently show definite metastatic patterns. This tendency for neoplasms of a particular histologic type to metastasize to a specific organ is also a characteristic of experimental animal tumor systems. Mechanical entrapment, arrest determined by specific recognition between neoplastic cells and capillaries and organ-determined modulation of tumor growth have all been suggested as mechanisms that regulate this specificity. Experimental… 
Organ specific metastasis with special reference to avian systems
Three hypotheses, mechanical, seed and soil, and specific tumor cell adherence (STCA), stand out as possible explanations for organ specific metastasis (OSM); there is substantial evidence that cell surface molecules are important in the process of OSM and homing of lymphocytes to specific lymph nodes.
Paracrine growth regulation of human colon carcinoma organ-specific metastasis
  • R. Radinsky
  • Biology, Medicine
    Cancer and Metastasis Reviews
  • 2004
Evidence is focused on biological and molecular evidence supporting the hypothesis that organ-derived, paracrine growth factors regulate the site-specific growth of receptive malignant cells that possess the appropriate receptors.
The Cellular Interactions of Metastatic Tumor Cells with Special Reference to Endothelial Cells and their Basal Lamina-Like Matrix
The present article will be limited to a discussion of the final events involved in the formation of hematogenous metastases, which include implant, invade and finally proliferate to form new metastatic colonies.
Cellular interactions in metastasis
It is indicated that normal tissue influences metastasis such that many tumors metastasize only if placed in the orthotopic site, and mixtures of tumor cells in the tissue of origin can express a more malignant character.
The pathogenesis of cancer metastasis: Relevance to therapy
The presence of multiple metastases makes complete eradication by surgery, radiation, drugs, or biotherapy nearly impossible, and immune effector cells of current biotherapeutic regimens may have difficulty reaching or localizing in some metastatic sites.
Cancer spread and micrometastasis development: Quantitative approaches for in vivo models
The findings suggest that metastatic growth and angiogenesis are prime targets for anti‐metastatic therapy.
Invasion of Vascular Endothelium and Organ Tissue in Vitro by B16 Melanoma Variants
Although most regional metastases can be explained strictly on anatomic circulatory pathways or on mechanical lodgment of blood-borne tumor emboli in the first capillary bed encountered, distantBlood-borne organ colonization by metastatic tumor cells does not always follow this pattern.
Organ-preference of metastasis
Biochemical and biophysical data indicate that preference of tumor cell adhesion to organ-specific microvascular endothelium may not require qualitative differences of such homing receptors between endothelia, but may be explained on the basis of quantitative receptor differences as well as differences of receptor avidity.
Clowes Memorial Award Lecture Critical Factors in the Biology of Human Cancer Metastasis : Updated
Understanding how damage to an organ and the subsequent repair process can facilitate tumor cell proliferation and the recent increase in understanding of metastasis should provide important leads for developing more effective approaches to the treatment of disseminated cancer.
Metastasis: Dissemination and growth of cancer cells in metastatic sites
Inhibition of the growth of metastases in secondary sites offers a promising approach for cancer therapy and could help to improve the treatment of metastatic disease.


Do Metastases Metastasize?
Investigation of the biologic potential of tumor cells shed from pulmonary metastases in the autogenous host found that tumor specific immunity perhaps facilitated by amputation of the primary may inhibit the growth of tumor-cells shed frommonary metastases even in sites of preferential metastases.
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Benign and malignant tumor cells are characterized by their abilities to circumvent the usual host controls that prevent excessive cell growth and division, which can lead to metastatic tumor spread and eventual death.
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    Cancer research
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Reticuloendothelial tumors tend to metastasize to specific organs and are, therefore, ideal tools for testing the “seed-soil hypothesis” of metastasis and it is demonstrated that these tumor cells will migrate to the spleen if implanted in other locations, including the kidney.
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