‘Proto-rivalry’: how the binocular brain identifies gloss

  title={‘Proto-rivalry’: how the binocular brain identifies gloss},
  author={Alexander A. Muryy and Roland W. Fleming and Andrew E. Welchman},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences},
Visually identifying glossy surfaces can be crucial for survival (e.g. ice patches on a road), yet estimating gloss is computationally challenging for both human and machine vision. Here, we demonstrate that human gloss perception exploits some surprisingly simple binocular fusion signals, which are likely available early in the visual cortex. In particular, we show that the unusual disparity gradients and vertical offsets produced by reflections create distinctive ‘proto-rivalrous’ (barely… 

Figures from this paper

Gloss and Speed Judgments Yield Different Fine Tuning of Saccadic Sampling in Dynamic Scenes

Results indicate that during glossiness judgments, participants tend to look at gloss-diagnostic dynamic features more than during speed judgments, which suggests a fine tuning of the visual system to properties of moving stimuli.

Neural computation of depth from binocular disparity

It is found that disparity encoding in primary visual cortex can be explained by shallow, feed-forward networks optimized to extract absolute depth from naturalistic images, and evidence for a differential contribution of cortical layers in stereoscopic depth perception is reported.

Image deformation as a cue to material category judgment

It is shown that the magnitude of image deformation caused by light refraction is a critical factor for the visual system to determine the perceptual category of fluid flows.

Three Perceptual Dimensions for Specular and Diffuse Reflection

The results suggest that perception of achromatic reflection is based on at least three dimensions, which are labelled “Lightness,’ “Gloss,” and “Metallicity”, indicating that they correspond to different physical properties of the rendered materials.

Binocular luster – A review

Reflections on glass.

A wide range of factors that can influence the perceptual identification of glass, including the structural complexity of an object, whether it is hollow or solid, and the pattern of illumination are considered.

Learning to see stuff

Shape Perception: Boundary Conditions on a Grey Area

Tachyglossus aculeatus (Monotremata: Tachyglossidae)

The Kangaroo Island short-beaked echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus multiaculeatus is listed as “Endangered” but all other TachyGlossus are listed as“Least Concern” in the 2016 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List.



Specular reflections and the estimation of shape from binocular disparity

By characterizing the behavior of specular disparities, this work shows that the disparity signals themselves provide key information (“intrinsic markers”) that enable potentially misleading disparities to be identified and rejected.

The dark side of gloss

It is shown in human observers that glossy surfaces can generate both bright specular highlights and dark specular 'lowlights, and that the presence of either is sufficient to generate compelling percepts of gloss.

Does the brain know the physics of specular reflection?

It is reported that the three-dimensional appearance of a highlight on a computer-simu-lated stereoscopic curved surface affects observers' judgment of surface gloss and that human visual analysis seems to employ a physical model of the interaction of light with curved surfaces, a model firmly based on ray optics and differential geometry.

Binocularity and visual search

This paper describes a series of visual search experiments for targets defined by their binocular characteristics, suggesting that some purely binocular information is available for visual search.

Highlights, disparity, and perceived gloss with convex and concave surfaces.

It is suggested, in contrast with previous work, that the visual system invokes simple heuristics as gloss indicators to accommodate complex reflections and inter-reflections that occur particularly inside concavities.

Effects of head motion and stereo viewing on perceived glossiness.

It is found that perceived glossiness is strongly enhanced by temporal changes of the retinal image caused by the observer's head motion and image differences between the two eyes in stereo viewing, suggesting that the human visual system utilizes rational methods for the perception of surface glossiness.

The physiology of stereopsis.

This work reveals that additional processing is required to make explicit the types of signal required for depth perception (such as the ability to match features correctly between the two monocular images).

Shape from specularities: computation and psychophysics.

  • A. BlakeH. Bülthoff
  • Art
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1991
Stereoscopically viewed highlights or 'specularities' are found to serve as cues for 3D local surface-geometry in the inference of 3D structure from 2D shaded images of glossy surfaces.