‘Education at our school is not free’: the hidden costs of fee-free schooling in Rwanda

@article{Williams2013EducationAO,
  title={‘Education at our school is not free’: the hidden costs of fee-free schooling in Rwanda},
  author={Timothy P. Williams and Pamela Abbott and Alfred Mupenzi},
  journal={Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education},
  year={2013},
  volume={45},
  pages={931 - 952}
}
As primary school enrolment rates in Rwanda near ubiquity, completion rates remain low and repetition rates remain high. This study investigates the impact of the ‘hidden costs’ of schooling in the context of Rwanda’s fee-free education policy. Using a social-science case study, focus groups and interviews were undertaken with 200 participants, including local leaders, school administrators, children and caregivers. Findings suggest children continue to contend with a range of school-related… 
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