‘Cannabis’ ontologies I: Conceptual issues with Cannabis and cannabinoids terminology

  title={‘Cannabis’ ontologies I: Conceptual issues with Cannabis and cannabinoids terminology},
  author={Kenzi Riboulet-Zemouli},
ObjectiveIdentify a coherent nomenclature for Cannabis sativa L. derived products and their analogues.DesignResearch undertaken in parallel to the three-year assessment of Cannabis derivatives by t... 
WHO’s first scientific review of medicinal Cannabis: from global struggle to patient implications
The process was historically unprecedented, of political relevance to both medical Cannabis and evidence-based scheduling generally, and the landscape resulting from accepted and rejected recommendations allow countries to continue creating decentralised, non-uniform systems for access to and availability of “Cannabis” and “cannabis resin” for medical purposes.
The Phytochemical Diversity of Commercial Cannabis in the United States
The cannabinoid and terpene content of tens of thousands of commercial Cannabis samples across six US states is analyzed, finding distinct chemical phenotypes (chemotypes) which are reliably present and certain labels are statistically overrepresented for specific chemotypes.
Simple chemical tests to identify Cannabis derivatives: Redefinition of parameters and analysis of concepts
It is concluded that the DL test can be conducted with reagents of less toxicity, but it is necessary to remove the plant matrix from the reaction medium, and the correlation of the TLC results with the chemical properties of cannabinoids and solvents was consistent and can be extrapolated for more complex analyses.
Clinical Evidence of Cannabinoids in Migraine: A Narrative Review
In this narrative review, the current clinical evidence of potential ECS involvement in migraine pathogenesis is summarized and studies exploring the clinical effects of phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids on migraine patients are reviewed.
Δ9-cis-Tetrahydrocannabinol: Natural Occurrence, Chirality, and Pharmacology.
The current legal discrimination between narcotic and non-narcotic cannabis varieties centers on the contents of "Δ9-THC and isomers" and needs therefore revision, or at least a more specific wording, to account for the presence of Δ9-cis-THCs in cannabis fiber hemp varieties.


Models of Cannabis Taxonomy, Cultural Bias, and Conflicts between Scientific and Vernacular Names
The development of vernacular “Sativa,’ “Indica,” and “Ruderalis” was abetted by twentieth century botanists, who ignored original protologues and harbored their own cultural biases.
On a New Cannabinoid Classification System: A Sight on the Illegal Market of Novel Psychoactive Substances
Abstract Synthetic cannabinoids are one of the most rapidly expanding classes of novel psychoactive substances found in illegal markets. These substances have evolved to the point that many examples
Classification of Cannabis sativa L. in Relation to Agricultural, Biotechnological, Medical and Recreational Utilization
Cannabis sativa has been utilized for millennia, primarily as a source of a stem fiber (both the plant and the fiber termed “hemp”) and a resinous intoxicant (the plant and its drug preparations
Cannabis confusions
  • G. Watts
  • Biology
    BMJ : British Medical Journal
  • 2006
Debates among “splitters” and “lumpers” over the correct classification of Cannabis rumbled on for much of the last century, although the lumpers seem to have won the majority vote.
Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals
  • Z. Atakan
  • Biology
    Therapeutic advances in psychopharmacology
  • 2012
An overview of the biochemical basis of cannabis research is provided by examining the different effects of the two main compounds of the plant and the endocannabinoid system, and available information on the possible factors explaining variation of its effects upon different individuals is reviewed.
Cannabis and cannabinoid drug development: evaluating botanical versus single molecule approaches
This commentary discusses the unique challenges and merits of botanical vs single molecule cannabinoid drug development strategies, highlights how both can be impacted by legalization of cannabis via legislative processes, and also addresses regulatory and public health considerations that are important to consider as cannabinoid medicine advances as a discipline.
Cannabinoid pharmacology: the first 66 years
  • R. Pertwee
  • Biology, Medicine
    British journal of pharmacology
  • 2006
Research into the pharmacology of individual cannabinoids that began in the 1940s is concisely reviewed and it is described how this pharmacological research led to the discovery of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and of endogenous ligands for these receptors.
Distribution of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in fresh wild cannabis
In Abhängigkeit der Entwicklungszeit wird in Wildhanfpflanzen die Verteilung des Tetrahydrocannabinols gaschromatographisch bestimmt.
Designing microorganisms for heterologous biosynthesis of cannabinoids
The potential use of synthetic biology as an alternative strategy for synthesis of cannabinoids in heterologous hosts is explored and a comprehensive description of the key steps of the genuine and artificial pathway, systems biotechnology needs and platform optimization is presented.