‘Actively Acquired Tolerance’ of Foreign Cells

@article{Billingham1953ActivelyAT,
  title={‘Actively Acquired Tolerance’ of Foreign Cells},
  author={Rupert Everett Billingham and Leslie Baruch Brent and Peter Brian Medawar},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1953},
  volume={172},
  pages={603-606}
}
The experiments to be described in this article provide a solution—at present only a ‘laboratory’ solution—of the problem of how to make tissue homografts immunologically acceptable to hosts which would normally react against them. The principle underlying the experiments may be expressed in the following terms: that mammals and birds never develop, or develop to only a limited degree, the power to react immunologically against foreign homologous tissue cells to which they have been exposed… Expand
Induction of Immunological Tolerance in Rats to Foreign Erythrocytes
TLDR
The whole range of phenomena included under the heading of immunological tolerance may well be an expression of the phenomenon of immune paralysis, such as can be produced by the injection of pneumococcal polysaccharides into mice8. Expand
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The aim of this work is to reproduce experimentally in chickens, rabbits, and mice a state of affairs that occurs naturally in the lifetime of most twin cattle of dizygotic origin and very rarely in twin human beings. Expand
DISCUSSION: IMMUNOLOGICAL TOLERANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF NEWBORN MICE TO INOCULATION OF LEUKEMIA
There is, on the surface at least, a striking similarity between the “acquired tolerance” to foreign cells described by Billingham and colleagues *. * and the susceptibility of newborn mice to theExpand
Quantitative Studies on Tissue Transplantation Immunity. III. Actively Acquired Tolerance
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Every degree of tolerance is possible, from that which allows a homograft to live only a few days beyond its normal median expectation of survival to that in which it is permanently accepted by and incorporated into its host. Expand
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  • K. Wood
  • Biology, Medicine
  • European journal of immunogenetics : official journal of the British Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics
  • 1993
TLDR
The ability to manipulate or reprogramme the adult immune system in such a way as to induce specific immunological unresponsiveness or tolerance to the alloantigens of the organ donor would offer many advantages over conventional immunosuppressive therapy. Expand
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  • N. Kaliss
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1955
TLDR
The results of an experimental technique employing in mice conditioning the host, the donor tissues are injected intraperitoneally prior to inoculation of the tumor homograft, which results in the abrogation of host resistance. Expand
WALLACE†” Actively Acquired Tolerance to Foreign Tumors 849 from tissue culture flasks
The phenomenon of “actively acquired toler ance― to foreign cells was demonstrated experi mentally by Billingham, Brent, and Medawar (1) in 1953. They observed that, if animals were givenExpand
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  • H. Koprowski
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1957
TLDR
The techniques used for homotransplantation of these neoplasms into hitherto insusceptible ICR mice followed, in general, methods devised by Billingham, Brent, and Medawar8 to make mice tolerant to skin homotranplantation. Expand
Tolerance by transplantation: how much is enough, how much is too much?
  • J. Platt
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of clinical investigation
  • 1999
TLDR
In this issue of the JCI, Ohdan et al. report that tolerance to Galα1-3Gal can be induced by hematopoietic chimerism, and suggest that the balance of tolerance, immunity, and immune regulation that dictates the intensity and duration of the response. Expand
PASSIVE IMMUNITY AGAINST FOUR MOUSE LEUKOSES BY MEANS OF ISOIMMUNE SERA
  • D. B. Amos, E. Day
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1957
TLDR
The object of this paper is to summarize the results of recent experiments with passively transferred antibody, finding that E.L.4 proved a very suitable tumor for passive immunity experiments in that it produced a very cellular, nonbloody ascites with no clumping of the leukemic cells. Expand
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