author={Majdi Faisal Majeed and Farhad Asadi and A. N. Al. Nassir and E. H.Rahi},
Morphological and histological study were performed in the cecum of ten, six months broiler chicken. The present study was observed that the morphological study distinguished three region from cecum .The proximal ,middle ,and distal represented (23.65%),(42.28%),(34.06%) respectively of the total length of right caecum ,and (23.59%),(43.45%),(23.95%) respectively of the total length of left caecum.The total length of the right caecum were(13.15±0.21)while the total length of left caecum were(13… 
Comparative Histological and Ultrastructural Studies on the Rectal Caeca of Three Birds
A comparative study by light and transmission electron microscopy on the three different caecal regions of quail, duck and owl revealed some important facts which may be differ from that established in the past.
Morphological Characteristics of the Developing Cecum of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
This study supports two hypotheses: the cecal development is related to diet and the c Cecal epithelium act as a site for primary absorption of nutrients or for re-absorption of electrolytes or amino acids derived from the urine.
The Histological and Histochemical Structure of the Rectum in the Cockatiel Nymphicus
The study concluded that the rectal composition in this bird is proportional to its function and the nature of the food it eats and that the materials secreted from its tissues contribute to the completion of this function.
Large intestine in pheasant (phasianus colchicus) and see‐see partridge (ammoperdix griseogularis). A comparative morphological and histological study
The morphology of the large intestine in see‐see partridges and pheasants is very similar to the other avian species, but there are more differences in the histological features.
Ultrastructural characterization of the intestine of the Eurasian common moorhen using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy
The present investigation focused on the morphological features of the intestine of Eurasian common moorhen by the aid of scanning electron microscopy and histological, morphometric, and statistical
Morphohistology and Biometric Characteristics of Cecal Tonsils of Sonali Chicken at Post-Hatching Ages
The microscopic observations revealed that at day 28 encapsulated lymphatic nodules was present along with the diffuse lymphocytes at the lamina propria and submucosa layer, which was absent at the previous study groups.
Morphological features of the gastrointestinal tract of Garganey (Anas querquedula, Linnaeus 1758)—Oesophagus to coprodeum
The gastrointestinal tract in Garganey is studied from the oesophagus to coprodeum by the aid of the gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy and histology, finding that the thick part had thick epithelium and appeared more folded with more and larger glands.
Histological, Histomorphometrical and Histochemical Studies on the Large Intestine of Uttara Fowl
Fundamentals for the production performance in a poultry flock are their genetic merit, management and health, and the study of avian gastrointestinal tract anatomy is still in its infancy and needs to be further explored.
The effect of delayed feeding post-hatch on caeca development in broiler chickens
The data suggested a limited effect of delayed feed access PH on the developmental changes in caecal functions, and the caeca seemed to be relatively resistant to delayed access to feed early PH, with only a few genes affected.
Gross and Ultra-Structural Studies on the Large Intestine of Uttara Fowl
Uttara fowls have low cholesterol content in their blood which makes it suitable for heart patients and obese people, and high glucose level in its blood due to more energy requirement at high altitude, more activity and more flying.


Distribution of lymphoid tissue in the caecal mucosa of chickens
In order to clarify the fundamental structure of the host defence mechanism in chicken caeca, a detailed analysis of the distribution of lymphoid nodules (LNs) was carried out on longitudinal
The apical caecal diverticulum of the chicken identified as a lymphoid organ.
The high frequency of ACD suggests that caecal apex may be sites for immunological surveillance in the chicken caecum and possible causes included (1) the fragility of the tunica muscularis at the ACD, and (2) the local removal of the physical supporting structures by the development of lymphoid nodules.
The spiral fold of the caecum in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).
The caecum of the ostrich was observed to contain a fold that spiralled approximately 30 times, transforming the lumen into a long, spiral-shaped cavity that plays an important role in the absorption of volatile fatty acids and other metabolites produced by microbial fermentation of cellulose and hemicellulose.
Characterization of distal lymphoid nodules in the chicken caecum
Lymphoid nodules consistently found in the distal region of each chicken caecum at approximately 3 cm from the ileo‐cecal junction are described, suggesting that they represent specialized mucosa‐associated lymphoid tissue that respond to antigens in the caecal lumen, their function being to enhance the mucosal defense provided by the caECal tonsils against antigen in the lumen of the caeca.
Microbes of the avian cecum: types present and substrates utilized.
  • G. Mead
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental zoology. Supplement : published under auspices of the American Society of Zoologists and the Division of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry
  • 1989
In all avian species examined, the consistent presence of large populations of uric acid-degrading bacteria supports the view that microbial populations in the ceca permit reabsorption of water and possibly nonprotein nitrogen from the backflow of urine.
Uric acid decomposition in the lower gastrointestinal tract.
  • E. Braun, C. Campbell
  • Chemistry
    The Journal of experimental zoology. Supplement : published under auspices of the American Society of Zoologists and the Division of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry
  • 1989
The refluxing of uric acid into the ceca and its subsequent degradation by bacteria provides an effective mechanism for the reclamation of carbon and nitrogen from the urine.
Uiltra structure difference between the two major component of chicken ceca
  • j . Exp . zoology
  • 2005
Morphometry of galliform ceca comparative Gumbels quail and domestic fowl
  • J . cell , Tissue Research
Morphological study of the cecal epithelium of chicken
  • British poultry science
  • 2008