μ-Opioid receptor desensitization by β-arrestin-2 determines morphine tolerance but not dependence

@article{Bohn2000OpioidRD,
  title={$\mu$-Opioid receptor desensitization by $\beta$-arrestin-2 determines morphine tolerance but not dependence},
  author={L. Bohn and R. Gainetdinov and F. Lin and R. Lefkowitz and M. Caron},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2000},
  volume={408},
  pages={720-723}
}
Morphine is a powerful pain reliever, but also a potent inducer of tolerance and dependence. The development of opiate tolerance occurs on continued use of the drug such that the amount of drug required to elicit pain relief must be increased to compensate for diminished responsiveness. In many systems, decreased responsiveness to agonists has been correlated with the desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors. In vitro evidence indicates that this process involves phosphorylation of G… Expand
Cellular Morphine Tolerance Produced by βArrestin-2-Dependent Impairment of μ-Opioid Receptor Resensitization
Analgesic tone conferred by constitutively active mu opioid receptors in mice lacking β-arrestin 2
Tolerance to Repeated Morphine Administration Is Associated with Increased Potency of Opioid Agonists
Morphine-Induced μ-Opioid Receptor Desensitization
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