μ-Opioid receptor desensitization by β-arrestin-2 determines morphine tolerance but not dependence

@article{Bohn2000OpioidRD,
  title={μ-Opioid receptor desensitization by β-arrestin-2 determines morphine tolerance but not dependence},
  author={L. Bohn and R. Gainetdinov and Fang-Tsyr Lin and R. Lefkowitz and M. Caron},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2000},
  volume={408},
  pages={720-723}
}
Morphine is a powerful pain reliever, but also a potent inducer of tolerance and dependence. The development of opiate tolerance occurs on continued use of the drug such that the amount of drug required to elicit pain relief must be increased to compensate for diminished responsiveness. In many systems, decreased responsiveness to agonists has been correlated with the desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors. In vitro evidence indicates that this process involves phosphorylation of G… Expand
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