Transglutaminases catalyze the formation of γ-glutamylamines utilizing glutamyl residues and amine-bearing compounds such as lysyl residues and polyamines. These γ-glutamylamines can be released from proteins by proteases in an intact form. The free γ-glutamylamines can be catabolized to 5-oxo-L-proline and the free amine by γ-glutamylamine cyclotransferase. Free γ-glutamylamines, however, accumulate in the CSF and affected areas of Huntington Disease brain. This observation suggests transglutaminase-derived γ-glutamylamines may play a more significant role in neurodegeneration than previously thought. The following monograph reviews the metabolism of γ-glutamylamines and examines the possibility that these species contribute to neurodegeneration.