Protopine inhibits heterotypic cell adhesion in MDA-MB-231 cells through down-regulation of multi-adhesive factors.
To resist substantial wall shear stress exerted by blood flow metastasizing colon carcinoma cells have to form adhesive contacts with endothelial cells and subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM). At secondary sites tumor cells have to stabilize these initial adhesive interactions to prevent detachment and recirculation. Previously we found that adhesion of colon carcinoma cells to ECM components under static conditions is mediated, in part, by various β1-integrins. Since other malignant cells possess adhesive properties that are different under static and dynamic conditions, we analyzed human colon carcinoma cell adhesion under flow by decreasing the flow (wall shear stress, WSS) of cell suspensions and allowing cells to interact with collagen-coated surfaces in a laminar flow chamber. HT-29 colon carcinoma cells were used to study wall shear adhesion threshold (WSAT), dynamic adhesion rate (DAR) and adhesion stabilization rate (ASR). DAR was determined after a low flow period using a WSS set at 50% of WSAT. ASR was calculated 60 sec after reestablishment of high WSS. Glass slides were coated with collagen I (C I) or bovine serum albumin (BSA, negative control). In some experiments cells were pretreated with function-blocking anti-β1 or nonspecific IgG. Rolling of cells occurred on C I- and BSA-coated surfaces at high WSS. By decreasing WSS cell sticking without definite adhesion was found, and cells stuck to BSA at WSS lower than that found for C I. Further decreasing WSS below WSAT enabled stable cell adhesion to C I, but only a few cells adhered to BSA. ASR was found to be 73% of primarily adherent cells (to C I). Pretreatment with anti-β1 did not affect cell rolling but did inhibit cell sticking and adhesion completely, whereas nonspecific IgG was without effect. Activation of PKC using phorbol ester resulted in an increase of adhesive interactions under dynamic and static conditions, whereas its inhibition reduced adhesion. Adhesive interactions of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells with ECM-coated surfaces under laminar flow conditions occurred in various steps: (1) rolling, (2) sticking or initial adhesion, and (3) stabilization of adhesion. Under shear flow rolling of tumor cells on ECM-coated surfaces appeared to be mediated mainly by physical/mechanical and nonspecific surface-cell membrane interactions, whereas stabilized adhesion to ECM was specifically mediated by β1-integrin binding to ECM components. PKC seems to be involved in the regulation of adhesion stabilization under static and flow conditions.