β‐Thymosins

@article{Hannappel2007Thymosins,
  title={$\beta$‐Thymosins},
  author={Ewald Hannappel},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2007},
  volume={1112}
}
  • E. Hannappel
  • Published 1 September 2007
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Abstract:  The development of thymosin β4 from a thymic hormone to an actin‐sequestering peptide and back to a cytokine supporting wound healing will be outlined. Thymosin fraction 5 consists of a mixture of polypeptides and improves immune response. Starting with fraction 5, several main peptides (thymosin α1, polypeptide β1, and thymosin β4) were isolated and tested for biological activity. However, none of the isolated peptides were really thymic hormones. They are all biological important… Expand
Thymosin β4 and its posttranslational modifications
  • E. Hannappel
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2010
TLDR
The concentration of C‐terminal peptide fragments of thymosin β4 is elevated in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and research on proteomics revealed several acetylated lysine residues and two phosphorylated threonine residues. Expand
Metal coordination of thymosin β4: Chemistry and possible implications
Abstract Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) was first isolated in the ‘60ies from calf thymus and was initially perceived as a thymic hormone with immunological effects on lymphocytes. It was then identified as aExpand
Identification of interaction partners of β‐thymosins: application of thymosin β4 labeled by transglutaminase
TLDR
In this review, potential interaction partners of the β‐thymosin family are identified and recent results are illuminated and an outlook on upcoming work in the field is given. Expand
Thymosin Beta 4 and Thymosin Beta 10 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
TLDR
The higher incidence of Tβ10 expression and its higher reactivity in tumor cells involved in stromal invasion indicate a possible major role for T β10 in HCC progression. Expand
Recombinant Expression and Bioactivity Characterization of TAT-Fused Thymosin β10
TLDR
The functional analyses demonstrated that the recombinant TB10 proteins displayed the distinct inhibition on angiogenesis by chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay and endothelial cell migration by wound healing assay and the TAT-fused TB10 even had stronger effects, probably due to the better transduction into the cells. Expand
Thymosin β4: structure, function, and biological properties supporting current and future clinical applications
TLDR
A special emphasis is placed on the development of Tβ4 in the treatment of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction in combination with percutaneous coronary intervention. Expand
Immunoreactivity for Thymosin Beta 4 and Thymosin Beta 10 in the Adult Rat Oro-Gastro-Intestinal tract
TLDR
The data clearly indicate a species-specific expression of Tβ4 and Tβ10, characterized by the actual unpredictability of the expression of these peptides in different cells and tissues. Expand
Thymosin β4 dynamics during chicken enteroid development
TLDR
It is proposed that depletion of T β4 likely precedes villous reparation process and the possible mechanism for the differences in Tβ4 profile in relation to the healing of the villus-crypts to developing enteroids is discussed. Expand
Thymosin fraction 5 re-evaluated after 35 years by high-resolution mass spectrometry
TLDR
In spite of the well- known proteolytic processes inherent to the preparation of thymosin fraction 5, still uncharacterized polypeptides as well as truncated forms of already well-known thymOSins are present in fraction 5 after long-term storage. Expand
Multiple functions of thymosin β4 in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata suggest its multiple potential roles in artificial pearl culture.
TLDR
It is suggested that Pfthymosin β4 is potentially able to promote wound healing through enhancing antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity, promotion of cell proliferation and migration, and increase of circulating hemocytes in P. fucata due to nucleus implantation injury. Expand
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References

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beta-Thymosins, small acidic peptides with multiple functions.
TLDR
Among the effects are induction of metallo-proteinases, chemotaxis, angiogenesis and inhibition of inflammation as well as the inhibition of bone marrow stem cell proliferation, nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effects attributed to extracellular beta-thymosins. Expand
Thymosin β10arg, a major variant of thymosin β10 in rabbit tissues
TLDR
It is reported that in rabbit tissues, the rabbit tissues analyzed also differ from those of other mammals in the relative quantities of thymosin beta ala4 and beta arg10, which are nearly equal, compared to tissues from other mammals where the quantities are only one-third to one-tenth those of thysine-38. Expand
C‐terminal truncation of thymosin β10 by an intracellular protease and its influence on the interaction with G‐actin studied by ultrafiltration
TLDR
The change in the dissociation constant generated by the truncation of the two C‐terminal amino acid residues of β10 is small but statistically significant, demonstrating that even the very last amino acids residues at the C‐ terminus of β‐thymosins are involved in the interaction with G‐actin. Expand
Thymosin β4 is released from human blood platelets and attached by factor XIIIa (transglutaminase) to fibrin and collagen
TLDR
Thymosin β4 cross‐linking is suggested to be mediated by factor XIIIa, a transglutaminase that is coreleased from stimulated platelets that provides a mechanism to increase the local concentration of thymos in β4 near sites of clots and tissue damage, where it may contribute to wound healing, angiogenesis and inflammatory responses. Expand
Interactions of β-Thymosins, Thymosin β4-Sulfoxide, and N-terminally Truncated Thymosin β4 with Actin Studied by Equilibrium Centrifugation, Chemical Cross-linking and Viscometry
All beta-thymosins studied interact with G-actin in a bimolecular complex and inhibit the polymerization to F-actin under high salt conditions. The interactions between actin and beta-thymosins haveExpand
Nuclear localisation of the G-actin sequestering peptide thymosin β4
TLDR
It is shown that after microinjection into intact cells, fluorescently labelled thymosin β4 has a diffuse cytoplasmic and a pronounced nuclear staining, and that this peptide may also serve as a G-actin sequestering peptide in the nucleus, although additional nuclear functions cannot be excluded. Expand
Biosynthesis rates and content of thymosin β4 in cell lines
TLDR
The results indicate that Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell lines may be suitable for the study of thymosin β4 function, and some intracellular function of the peptide is suggested. Expand
Molecular conservation of 74 amino acid sequence of ubiquitin between cattle and man
TLDR
Although its physiological function remains unknown, ubiquitin must be vital to the living cell to have been conserved over such a long evolutionary time span and it is reported that human Ubiquitin has an identical sequence. Expand
Thymosin β4 serves as a glutaminyl substrate of transglutaminase. Labeling with fluorescent dansylcadaverine does not abolish interaction with G‐actin 1
TLDR
Thymosin β4 possesses actin‐sequestering activity and, like transglutaminases, is supposed to be involved in cellular events like angiogenesis, blood coagulation, apoptosis and wound healing, and can be fluorescently labeled with dansylcadaverine and may serve as a useful tool for further investigations in cell biology. Expand
Thymosin β4 increases hair growth by activation of hair follicle stem cells
  • D. Philp, Mychi Nguyen, +5 authors M. Elkin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2004
TLDR
It is reported that thymosin β4 stimulates hair growth in normal rats and mice and accelerates hair growth, in part, due to its effect on critical events in the active phase of the hair follicle cycle, including promoting the migration of stem cells and their immediate progeny to the base of the follicle, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Expand
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