α transducin is present in blue-, green-, and red-sensitive cone photoreceptors in the human retina

@article{Lerea1989TI,
  title={$\alpha$ transducin is present in blue-, green-, and red-sensitive cone photoreceptors in the human retina},
  author={Connie L. Lerea and Ann H. Bunt-Milam and James B. Hurley},
  journal={Neuron},
  year={1989},
  volume={3},
  pages={367-376}
}
Phototransduction in vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptor cells involves G protein-mediated light stimulation of cGMP hydrolysis. Enzymes of the cGMP hydrolysis cascades of rods and cones are products of different genes. Three different classes of cones in the human retina are maximally sensitive to either blue, green, or red light. Distinct opsin genes are expressed in each type of cone. The distribution of cone types in human retina was determined using anti-peptide antibodies that recognize… 
Rod and cone photoreceptor cells express distinct genes for cGMP-gated channels
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A Visual Pigment Expressed in Both Rod and Cone Photoreceptors
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Results from immunohistochemistry, spectrophotometry, and single-cell RT-PCR demonstrate that, in the tiger salamander, the green rods and blue-sensitive cones contain the same opsin, suggesting that neither the cell topology or the transducin is sufficient to differentiate the rod and the cone response.
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TLDR
The authors demonstrate new cone-like traits in the biochemical make-up of rod-like cells, and the distribution of the transducin beta subunit in the ground squirrel is different from that found in other mammals.
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A zebrafish mutant, no optokinetic response fw21 (nof), with a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the α subunit of cone transducin is described, which independently induces release of Ca2+ into the photoreceptor cytoplasm.
Regional topography of rod and immunocytochemically characterized "blue" and "green" cone photoreceptors in rabbit retina.
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It is found that densities of photoreceptors vary systematically, depending upon the size of the eye and age of the animal, and questions are raised about the identities of the visual pigment epitopes, the possibility of double labeling, and therefore the possible of dual expression of pigments in single cones.
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TLDR
The cloning of GRK7 from rod-dominant pig and human retinas is reported, suggesting that this kinase plays a role in human visual signaling, and Immunocytochemical analysis using antibodies selective for these two GRKs unexpectedly demonstrated species-specific differences inGRK7 and GRK1 expression in cones.
Speed, sensitivity, and stability of the light response in rod and cone photoreceptors: Facts and models
TLDR
The molecular identity and distinct function of the molecules of the transduction cascade in rods and cones are summarized and a mathematical model of the signal-transducing enzymatic cascade is examined, constrained by available electrophysiological, biochemical and biophysical data.
Distribution of photoreceptor subtypes in the retina of diurnal and nocturnal primates
  • K. C. Wikler, P. Rakić
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1990
TLDR
Application of the photoreceptor-class-specific antibodies may provide further insights into the evolution and development of wavelength sensitivity in the retina, as well as enhance the understanding of normal and abnormal color vision in humans.
The role of opsin expression and apoptosis in determination of cone types in human retina.
TLDR
No evidence of significant levels of apoptosis in L/M cones at the expression front is found, suggesting that this decrease in S cone density in fetal compared to adult retinae was not due to cell death, and is likely due to other developmental events acting on the photoreceptor layer.
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