[Relaxin-3 and relaxin family peptide receptors--from structure to functions of a newly discovered mammalian brain system].

  title={[Relaxin-3 and relaxin family peptide receptors--from structure to functions of a newly discovered mammalian brain system].},
  author={Alan Kania and Marian Henryk Lewandowski and Anna Blasiak},
  journal={Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej},
Relaxin-3, a member of the relaxin peptide family, was discovered in 2001 as a homologue of relaxin--a well-known reproductive hormone. However, it is the brain which turned out to be a major expression site of this newly discovered peptide. Both its molecular structure and expression pattern were shown to be very conserved among vertebrates. Extensive research carried out since the discovery of relaxin-3 contributed to the significant progress in our knowledge regarding this neuropeptide. The… 
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Relaxin-3 systems in the brain—The first 10 years
Solution Structure and Novel Insights into the Determinants of the Receptor Specificity of Human Relaxin-3*
Overall, Relaxin-3 adopts an insulin-like fold, but the structure differs crucially from the crystal structure of human relaxin-2 near the B-chain terminus, allowing TrpB27 to interact with the hydrophobic core and partly blocks the conserved RXXXRXXI motif identified as a determinant for the interaction with the relaxin receptor LGR7.
Identification of Relaxin-3/INSL7 as an Endogenous Ligand for the Orphan G-protein-coupled Receptor GPCR135*
The identification of relaxin-3 as the ligand for GPCR135 provides the framework for the discovery of a new brainstem/hypothalamus circuitry.
Relaxin family peptides and their receptors.
There are seven relaxin family peptides that are all structurally related to insulin. Relaxin has many roles in female and male reproduction, as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system, as a
Restricted, but abundant, expression of the novel rat gene‐3 (R3) relaxin in the dorsal tegmental region of brain
The identification of a rat homologue, rat gene‐3 (R3) relaxin that is highly expressed in a discrete region of the adult brain provides strong evidence for a role(s) for multiple relaxin peptides as neurotransmitters and/or modulators in the rat CNS.
Relaxin-3 and receptors in the human and rhesus brain and reproductive tissues
The Relaxin Family Peptide Receptor 3 Activates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 through a Protein Kinase C-Dependent Mechanism
It is identified that RXFP3 stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 and human embryonic kidney (HEK-RXFP3) cells activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 when stimulated with H3 relaxin and an H3 Relaxin B-chain (dimer) peptide.
Hypothalamic mapping of orexigenic action and Fos-like immunoreactivity following relaxin-3 administration in male Wistar rats.
Two studies provide additional support for relaxin-3 as an important peptide in appetite regulation by mapping the hypothalamic site(s) of the orexigenic action of relaxin -3 and examining the site(S) of neuronal activation following central relaxin)-3 administration.
Localization of relaxin‐3 in brain of Macaca fascicularis: Identification of a nucleus incertus in primate
New anatomical findings support the proposition that the RLN3 system is similarly involved in the integration and modulation of behavioral activation and arousal and responses to stress in nonhuman primates and humans.