[Leishmaniasis: principles of the immune response and function of nitric oxide].

@article{Bogdan1998LeishmaniasisPO,
  title={[Leishmaniasis: principles of the immune response and function of nitric oxide].},
  author={Christian Bogdan},
  journal={Berliner und Munchener tierarztliche Wochenschrift},
  year={1998},
  volume={111 11-12},
  pages={409-14}
}
Leishmania are flagellated protozoa, which are transmitted to mammals by sand flies. Depending on the parasite species and the host immune system, infection with Leishmania can lead to simple self-healing ulcers (e.g., oriental sore), progressive mucocutaneous lesions, or to visceral disease involving spleen, liver and bone marrow (kala azar). The control of the parasites is critically dependent on type 1 CD4+ T helper cells, which evolve in the presence of interleukin-12 and activate the… CONTINUE READING