[Influence of local anaesthesia on short- and long-term pain induced in calves by three bloodless castration methods].

Behavioural and cortisol responses of calves were used as indicators of pain to assess short- and long-term effects of three bloodless castration methods with and without local anaesthesia. Eighty calves, aged 21 to 28 days, were control handled (20) or castrated by Burdizzo (25), rubber ring (25), or crushing technique (10). Either a total volume of 10 ml… CONTINUE READING