[Guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins].

  title={[Guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins].},
  author={Jean-Philippe Chippaux},
  journal={Biologie aujourd'hui},
  volume={204 1},
Although frequent and severe, envenomations represent a neglected public health problem in most of the developing countries. Access to antivenoms is poor, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, and remains a major concern to World Health Organization (WHO). Since 2007, WHO committed international experts to propose guidelines aiming to improve the manufacture, quality control, registration and use of antivenoms. These guidelines, which will published soon, should promote access to antivenoms, and their… 

Global Availability of Antivenoms: The Relevance of Public Manufacturing Laboratories

The role of public antivenom manufacturing laboratories for ensuring the supply of antivenoms and the concept of ‘redundancy’ in the supply is emphasized, as a way to cope with the risks associated with the provision ofAntivenoms by few manufacturers.

Reducing the impact of snakebite envenoming in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements and challenges ahead.

  • J. Gutiérrez
  • Medicine
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
  • 2014
Major progress has been achieved in the study of snake venoms, particularly regarding venom proteomics, and the analysis of the mechanism of action of toxins, and a deeper understanding has been gained in the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms produced in the region.

Recent Advances in Next Generation Snakebite Antivenoms

The most recent advances in these fields are presented, and the advantages, disadvantages, and feasibility of using different toxin-neutralizing molecules are reviewed.

Review Article: Snake Envenomation in Africa

With the new designation of snakebite envenoming as a category A neglected tropical disease, an active WHO working group, and several independent groups focusing on a multidisciplinary approach to improve key gaps in knowledge and apply new treatment modalities, it can greatly decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with snakebite in Africa.

Antibodies as Snakebite Antivenoms: Past and Future

Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are described as a possible alternative for the production of antivenoms, regardless of the venom, despite the fact that venoms are a complex mixture of components.

Priority Actions and Progress to Substantially and Sustainably Reduce the Mortality, Morbidity and Socioeconomic Burden of Tropical Snakebite

The deliberations and conclusions of a Hinxton Retreat convened in September 2015, entitled “Mechanisms to reverse the public health neglect of snakebite victims” are reported. The participants

History and perspectives on how to ensure antivenom accessibility in the most remote areas in Brazil.

  • H. W. FanW. Monteiro
  • Medicine
    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 2018

Perspective on the Therapeutics of Anti-Snake Venom

Specific therapeutic snakebite envenomation treatments are described and an increased number of literature reports on the ability of natural sources, particularly plants, to treat snakebites are covered, along with their mechanisms, drawbacks and future perspectives.

Comparison of the Effectiveness, the Safety, and the Pharmacokinetic of Snakebites Antivenoms: Review

There are big pharmacological differences between the generations of antivenoms, which are exposed in this document as a practical tool to optimize the adequate pharmacological treatment in snakebite.



New approaches in antivenom therapy.

An ELISA was developed to determine venom concentrations in biological samples of patients bitten by vipers in an attempt to establish a correlation between venom levels and clinical symptoms and the kinetics of venom and antivenom were studied.

Snake-bites: appraisal of the global situation.

  • J. Chippaux
  • Medicine
    Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • 1998
The present article is an attempt to draw the attention of health authorities to snake envenomations and urges them to prepare therapeutic protocols adapted to their needs.

Report of a WHO workshop on the standardization and control of antivenoms.

Effectiveness of Snake Antivenom: Species and Regional Venom Variation and Its Clinical Impact

These factors, combined with the ongoing reduction in the number of antivenom manufacturers world‐wide, and concomitant contraction in the range of available antivenoms, present significant challenges for the treatment of snakebite in the 21st century.

Treatment of snake bites by Bothrops species and Lachesis muta in Ecuador: laboratory screening of candidate antivenoms.

Recurrence phenomena after immunoglobulin therapy for snake envenomations: Part 2. Guidelines for clinical management with crotaline Fab antivenom.

Recurrent local and coagulopathic effects (worsening after clinical improvement) have been described after treatment with Fab antivenom for envenomation by North American crotaline snakes. Although

Comparison of Pasteur and Behringwerke antivenoms in envenoming by the carpet viper (Echis carinatus).

Despite its potency in the mouse protection test, Behringwerke antivenom is unreliable and unpredictable in neutralising venom procoagulant in humans bitten by E carinatus.

Formulation of a liquid ovine Fab-based antivenom for the treatment of envenomation by the Nigerian carpet viper (Echis ocellatus).

Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationships of Immunoglobulin Therapy for Envenomation

Heterogeneity in pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action of venom components requires a detailed analysis of each venom-antivenom system in order to determine the most appropriate type of neutralising molecule for each particular venom.