#SorryNotSorry: Why states neither confirm nor deny responsibility for cyber operations

@article{Brown2021SorryNotSorryWS,
  title={\#SorryNotSorry: Why states neither confirm nor deny responsibility for cyber operations},
  author={Joseph M. Brown and Tanisha M. Fazal},
  journal={European Journal of International Security},
  year={2021},
  volume={6},
  pages={401 - 417}
}
Abstract States accused of perpetrating cyber operations typically do not confirm or deny responsibility. They issue ‘non-denial denials’ or refuse to comment on the accusations. These ambiguous signals are prevalent, but they are largely ignored in the existing cyber literature, which tends to treat credit claiming as a binary choice. The ambiguity of non-denial denials and ‘non-comments’ allows states to accomplish two seemingly opposed goals: maintaining crisis stability and leaving open the… 

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