"Winged Sponges": Houseflies as Carriers of Typhoid Fever in 19th- and Early 20th-Century Military Camps

@article{Cirillo2006WingedSH,
  title={"Winged Sponges": Houseflies as Carriers of Typhoid Fever in 19th- and Early 20th-Century Military Camps},
  author={Vincent J. Cirillo},
  journal={Perspectives in Biology and Medicine},
  year={2006},
  volume={49},
  pages={52 - 63}
}
  • V. Cirillo
  • Published 24 January 2006
  • Medicine
  • Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Typhoid fever was the scourge of 19th- and early 20th-century armies. During the Spanish-American War (1898) and the Anglo-Boer War (1899– 1902), typhoid killed more soldiers than enemy bullets. Walter Reed and his coworkers investigated the cause of the typhoid epidemics in the U.S. Army camps and concluded that, next to human contact, the housefly (Musca domestica) was the most active agent in the spread of the disease. British medical officers in South Africa, facing even worse typhoid… 

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