Corpus ID: 45995563

"Trace" benzoylecgonine identifications in post-race urines: probable sources and regulatory significance of such identifications.

  title={"Trace" benzoylecgonine identifications in post-race urines: probable sources and regulatory significance of such identifications.},
  author={F. Camargo and C. Hughes and A. Lehner and K. Stirling and T. Tobin},
Cocaine is an environmental contaminant in North America. Benzoylecgonine (BZE) is the major urinary metabolite of cocaine in horses and humans, and urinary detection of BZE is highly sensitive. Human workplace drug testing typically uses a confirmatory “cutoff” for BZE of 150 ng/ml in urine. A number of horse-racing jurisdictions have adopted similar urinary “cutoffs” for BZE; this communication presents the scientific basis for these cutoffs and lists jurisdictions with urinary cutoffs for… Expand
A cluster of trace-concentration methamphetamine identifications in racehorses associated with a methamphetamine-contaminated horse trailer: A report and analysis.
This incident establishes methamphetamine as a human-use substance that can inadvertently enter the environment of racing horses, resulting in urinary methamphetamine "positives;" an interim regulatory cut-off of 15 ng/mL for methamphetamine in post-race urine is proposed. Expand
Scopolamine in racing horses: trace identifications associated with dietary or environmental exposure.
The expected characteristics of inadvertent environmental exposure are presented with a view to making clear the potential of scopolamine identifications, with or without atropine, as a direct and expected outcome of both the worldwide distribution of scopamine-containing plants and the sensitivity of modern equine drug testing. Expand


A Review of Possible Environmental Sources of Drug Positives
Environmental sources of drugs and medications exist, but at the current time, many are not well defined and may not be accepted by regulatory officials as mitigating circumstances. Veterinarians andExpand
Lowering cutoffs for initial and confirmation testing for cocaine and marijuana: large-scale study of effects on the rates of drug-positive results.
  • W. Wingert
  • Medicine, Chemistry
  • Clinical chemistry
  • 1997
Lowering the initial testing and confirmation testing cutoffs in urine would significantly affect the positive rates for cocaine (COC) and marijuana (THC), and increases appear noteworthy. Expand
Determination of the highest no‐effect dose (HNED) and of the elimination pattern for cocaine in horses
It was concluded that the highest no‐effect dose (HNED) of cocaine for horses in a behavior chamber is 0.02 mg kg−1, and the maximum admissible concentration for cocaine and/or metabolites in the urine of horses is difficult to establish unequivocally. Expand
On the dermal absorption of cocaine.
It is concluded that dermal absorption of cocaine represents a minor, but significant route of exposure to this drug that needs to be considered when interpreting low-level urine drug testing results. Expand
Cocaine contamination of United States paper currency.
Cocaine contamination of currency is widespread throughout the United States and is likely to be primarily a result of cross-contamination from other contaminated currency and from contaminated money-counting machines. Expand
Review of Possible Sources of Exposure of Horses to Natural Products and Environmental Contaminants Resulting in Regulatory Action
Natural products and environmental contaminants may be responsible for positive drug findings that result in regulatory actions against horse trainers. Knowledge of these potential sources of drugsExpand
Determination of highest no effect dose (HNED) for local anaesthetic responses to procaine, cocaine, bupivacaine and benzocaine.
The results show that the HNEDs for bupivacaine and procaine are remarkably low, that cocaine is somewhat less potent as a LA than might be expected, and that 5% topical benzocaine has no significant pharmacology. Expand
Effects of cocaine on incremental treadmill exercise in horses.
Four mature horses were used to test the effects of two doses (50 and 200 mg) of intravenously administered cocaine on hemodynamics and selected indexes of performance [maximal heart rate (HRmax), treadmill velocity at HRmax, treadmill velocity needed to produce a blood lactate concentration, maximal treadmill work intensity, and test duration] measured during an incremental treadmill test. Expand
Variable-interval responding in the horse: a sensitive method of quantitating effects of centrally acting drugs.
Variable-interval response was a sensitive method of measuring drug effects in the horse and allowed accurate quantitation of drug effects that were not detectable by clinical observation. Expand
A liquid chromatographic-electrospray tandem MS/MS method for quantitation of equine cocaine Metabolites, in Proceedings
  • 13th International Conference of Racing Analysts and Veterinarians
  • 2000