"The Sea Common to All": Maritime Frontiers, Port Cities, and Chinese Traders in the Southeast Asian Age of Commerce, ca. 1400–1750

  title={"The Sea Common to All": Maritime Frontiers, Port Cities, and Chinese Traders in the Southeast Asian Age of Commerce, ca. 1400–1750},
  author={Craig A. Lockard},
  journal={Journal of World History},
  pages={219 - 247}
The maritime frontier has played a key role in shaping the coastal peoples of Southeast Asia and South China, whose settlements were often more easily reached by water than over land, while serving to link these regions to the wider world. This article explores the maritime frontier from central China through the Malay Peninsula as a single field of interaction, sometimes compared to the Mediterranean, in the early modern era (1400–1700) through a study of three key ports: Melaka in Malaya, Hoi… 


From the earliest centuries, there is evidence of the participation of various communities in the Southeast Asian region in global trade between Europe, India and China. One of its components was

Chinese Migration and Settlement in Southeast Asia Before 1850: Making Fields From the Sea

Human migration is a central theme in world and Asian history, but important cases, among them Chinese who emigrated to other countries between ca. 1000 and 1850 CE, have been somewhat neglected in

The Vietnam Central Coastline and the Emergent Nguyễn State, c. 1500-1700: Port, Coastline, Hinterland Interrelations

This study, building upon earlier works published from 2011 to the present, focuses on sixteenth through eighteenth century Cochinchina’s upstream-downstream networked relations and how they

A maritime cultural landscape of Cochinchina: The South China Sea, maritime routes, navigation, and boats in pre colonial central Vietnam

This thesis depicts aspects of maritime life along the coast of central Vietnam, Cochinchina, between the 16th and the 19th centuries. The aim of the thesis is to provide a general understanding of

The Southeast Asian water frontier: coastal trade and mid-fifteenth c. CE “hill tribe” burials, southeastern Cambodia

In mainland Southeast Asia, the so-called water frontier unified an otherwise geographically broad and culturally disparate economic network of long-, medium-, and short-distance trade of the


This article focuses on recent revisionist scholarship demonstrating that China's maritime history in the period 1500 to 1630 is no longer a case of ‘missed opportunity’, a viewpoint fostered by

Revisionist Study of Cross-Cultural Commercial Competition on the Vietnam Coastline in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries and Its Wider Implications

New archaeological discoveries since the 1990s mandate the rereading of primary sources that have been foundational to the understanding of pre-1500 Asian history. While this study is specific to the

The Chinese Maritime Frontier: 10th — 16th Century

China’s maritime development during 200 B.C. to 1600 A.D. is usually vastly overlooked compared to its counterpart: Europe. Traditionally, Europe’s maritime development has been associated as the

Beginning of the Maritime Journey

By the end of the first millennium, the Hokkien from southern Fujian were known for their seafaring activities and later travelled to many sites during the mass migration wave of the eighteenth and



The Structure of Cities in Southeast Asia, Fifteenth to Seventeenth Centuries

Maritime Southeast Asia is one of those parts of the world destined by geography to be an international marketplace. Not only is it the largest of the world's archipelagos, penetrated throughout by

The East Asian Mediterranean: Maritime Crossroads of Culture, Commerce and Human Migration

The present volume is a collection of papers originally presented for the concluding conference of the research project The East Asian "Mediterranean" entitled "The East Asian 'Mediterranean' -

The East Asian maritime world 1400-1800 : its fabrics of power and dynamics of exchanges

The volume is a collection of studies discussing aspects of the political economy and raison d'etat of East Asian countries, especially against the background of East Asia's integration into the

Trade and civilisation in the Indian Ocean

Before the age of Industrial Revolution, the great Asian civilisations - whether located in the Middle East, India, South-East Asia, or the Far East - constituted areas not only of high culture but

From Japan to Arabia: Ayutthaya's Maritime Relations with Asia

Thai maritime trade and the ministry responsible / Kennon Breazeale -- Origins of a capital and seaport: the early settlement of Ayutthaya and its East Asian trade / Charnvit Kasetsiri -- Ayutthaya,

Engaging the South: Ming China and Southeast Asia in the Fifteenth Century

The fifteenth century witnessed Ming China expanding its interactions with areas to the south—areas which we today refer to as Southeast Asia. This involved overland political expansion, the gradual

Water frontier : commerce and the Chinese in the Lower Mekong Region, 1750-1880

Chapter 1 The Water Frontier: An Introduction Part 2 Part I: Permeable Frontiers: Chinese Trade and Traders in the Region Chapter 3 Chinese Trade and Southeast Asian Economic Expansion in the Later

The last stand of Asian autonomies : responses to modernity in the diverse states of Southeast Asia and Korea, 1750-1900

List of Maps - Preface - List of Abbreviations - Notes on the Contributors - Introduction A.Reid - Mainland-Archipelagic Parallels and Contrasts, c.1750-1850 V.Lieberman - ECONOMIC CHANGES - A New

Southeast Asia in the early modern era : trade, power, and belief

  • A. Reid
  • History, Economics
    The Journal of Asian Studies
  • 1997
The political and religious identities of Southeast Asia were largely formed by the experiences of the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries, when international commerce boomed before eventually

The Emporium of the world: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000–1400

This volume, by offering a score of new insights derived from a wide variety of recent archaeological and textual sources, bring to life an important overseas trading port in Southeast Asia: