"In Labor Alone is Happiness": Women's Work, Social Work, and Feminist Reform Endeavors in Wilhelmine Germany--A Transatlantic Perspective

  title={"In Labor Alone is Happiness": Women's Work, Social Work, and Feminist Reform Endeavors in Wilhelmine Germany--A Transatlantic Perspective},
  author={Iris Anja Schroder and Anja Schuler},
  journal={Journal of Women's History},
  pages={127 - 147}
When social reformers in Wilhelmine Germany discussed "the social question" or "the woman's question," they often did so in a gendered way, pointing at the plight of overburdened female factory workers and the presumingly parasitical lives of middle- and upper-class women. In fact, work as opposed to leisure precluded happiness for one group of women in Wilhelmine Germany; lack of work made life difficult for another group. This article argues that women social reformers searched for ways to… 
1 Citations

The fading scope of labour – remarks about the lost rationale of a common term

Work and labour describe activities with a redistributional and a reproductive component. In addition, the terms have gained the function of creating social status and self-esteem. This paper argues



Working with Class: Social Workers and the Politics of Middle-Class Identity

Polls tell us that most Americans--whether they earn $20,000 or $200,000 a year--think of themselves as middle class. As this phenomenon suggests, "middle class" is a category whose definition is not

A German Women's Movement: Class and Gender in Hanover, 1880-1933

Nancy Reagin analyzes the rhetoric, strategies, and programs of more than eighty bourgeois women's associations in Hanover, a large provincial capital, from the Imperial period to the Nazi seizure of

Mother-Work: Women, Child Welfare, and the State, 1890-1930

Early in the twentieth century, maternal and child welfare evolved from a private family responsibility into a matter of national policy. Women played the central role in this development. In

Home to Work: Motherhood and the Politics of Industrial Homework in the United States

Abbreviations List of illustrations Acknowledgments Introduction 'home, sweet home': gender, the state, and labor standards Part I. Man's Freedom, Woman's Necessity: Jacobs and its Legacy: 1. 'A

Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women's Movement

  • L. Rupp
  • History, Political Science
  • 1997
Worlds of Women is an exploration of the "first wave" of the international women's movement, from its late nineteenth-century origins through the Second World War. Making extensive use of archives in

Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era

With its massive industrialization, rapid urban growth, and immense social change, the Progressive Era as a period of reform marks the birth of contemporary American institutions, policies, and

Women, the State, and Welfare

A collection of essays specifically about women and welfare in the United States. A state-of-the-art introduction to how welfare programmes affect women and how gender relations have influenced the

Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States

First published in 1982, this pioneering work traces the transformation of "women's work" into wage labor in the United States, identifying the social, economic, and ideological forces that have

The rise of women's political culture, 1830-1900

This masterful biography by one of America's foremost historians of women tells the story of Florence Kelley, a leading reformer in the Progressive Era. The book also serves as a political history of

Feminism and Motherhood in Germany, 1800-1914

European historians have noted the prominent role of the maternal ethic -- the idea that woman's role as mother extends into society as a whole -- in the theory and practice of German feminism from