"I Was Convulsed, Pitiably Hideous": Convulsive Shock Treatment in Leonora Carrington's Down Below

@article{Hoff2009IWC,
  title={"I Was Convulsed, Pitiably Hideous": Convulsive Shock Treatment in Leonora Carrington's Down Below},
  author={Ann K. Hoff},
  journal={Journal of Modern Literature},
  year={2009},
  volume={32},
  pages={83 - 98}
}
  • Ann K. Hoff
  • Published 2009
  • History
  • Journal of Modern Literature
This essay examines Leonora Carrington's Down Below through a psychiatric lens. In particular, it looks at clinical accounts of Cardiazol-induced shock treatments next to Carrington's own testimony of the helplessness imposed upon the mentally ill and the socially transgressive. Cardiazol—an analeptic drug used to induce seizures strong enough to fracture vertebrae and stop the heart—is often mentioned in Carrington scholarship, but scholars have not delved into the drug's protocol. In fact… Expand
3 Citations
Leonora Carrington, Surrealism, and Initiation
In 1940, the surrealist artist and writer Leonora Carrington (1917–2011) was incarcerated in a Spanish mental asylum, having been pronounced “incurably insane.” Down Below, an account of the incidentExpand
Leonora Carrington, Surrealism, and Initiation : Symbolic Death and Rebirth in Little Francis and Down Below
In 1940, the surrealist artist and writer Leonora Carrington (1917–2011) was incarcerated in a Spanish mental asylum, having been pronounced “incurably insane”. Down Below, an account of the incideExpand
Leonora Carrington : A Bestiary.
................................................................................................................................. iii LIST OF FIGURESExpand

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 21 REFERENCES
‘A violent thunderstorm’: Cardiazol treatment in British mental hospitals
TLDR
This account shows how evaluation of convulsive therapy was skewed by naÔve outcome measurement and diagnostic discrepancies, and how its therapeutic indication evolved from schizophrenia to affective disorders. Expand
Surrealism's banging door
In drawing out the uncanny relationship between André Breton's Nadja and Leonora Carrington's Down Below , this essay examines surrealism's ideological and aesthetic construction and representationExpand
An exploration of the patient's experience of electro-convulsive therapy in mid-twentieth century creative literature: a historical study with implications for practice today.
  • C. Hilton
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Journal of affective disorders
  • 2007
TLDR
Fear of electricity and other factors in the practice of ECT in the past may still be important in the acceptance of E CT as a clinical treatment, and warrants further qualitative exploration. Expand
Convulsion Therapy in War Psychoneurotics
All cases treated, save one, in a series of 40 selected cases of war-time psychoneurotics improved in varying measure as a result of convulsion therapy, though the ultimate prognosis as to the returnExpand
Spinal Injuries in Convulsion Therapy
TLDR
There is no justification for allowing the risk of vertebral fractures to preclude convulsion treatment in suitable cases, and the relative immunity of the posterior parts of the vertebral bodies may be due to the support afforded by the pedicles, which are of compact bone. Expand
Loving Freud Madly: Surrealism between Hysterical and Paranoid Modernism
The question of whether Surrealism played a positive or a negative role in the dissemination of Freudian ideas sounds rather blunt or normative, but it is a question I would like to pose less toExpand
Surrealism and Women
These sixteen illustrated essays present an important revision of surrealism by focusing on the works of women surrealists and their strategies to assert positions as creative subjects within aExpand
Magnifying Mirrors: Women, Surrealism, and Partnership
'Professor Hubert gives us a whole new understanding of Surrealism and of the way male and female artists of the movement worked together or side by side to produce astonishing works. Hubert hasExpand
Leonora Carrington and Max Ernst: Artistic Partnership and Feminist Liberation*
IT OCCURS quite frequently in our century that two recognized artists live and work together. I could provide an impressive list of partnerships, easily amplified by other critics. The artistic sceneExpand
The Abused Mind: Feminist Theory, Psychiatric Disability, and Trauma
I show how much psychiatric disability is informed by trauma, marginalization, sexist norms, social inequalities, concepts of irrationality and normalcy, oppositional mind-body dualism, andExpand
...
1
2
3
...