"For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle?" (I Corinthians 14:8, KJV).

@article{Block2008ForIT,
  title={"For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle?" (I Corinthians 14:8, KJV).},
  author={Frank E. Block},
  journal={Anesthesia and analgesia},
  year={2008},
  volume={106 2},
  pages={
          357-9
        }
}
  • F. Block
  • Published 1 February 2008
  • Medicine
  • Anesthesia and analgesia
Frank E. Block, Jr., MD Every clinician is well aware of the problems with audible alarms: False alarms, loud alarms, difficulty determining what is alarming, and inability to quiet an alarm all create distractions that impede patient care. These problems are complicated by the different approaches to alarms among devices. Devices designed by various manufacturers may use different alarm sounds to identify similar events or, alternately, similar sounds may be produced to identify unrelated… 

Comparison of the identification and ease of use of two alarm sound sets by critical and acute care nurses with little or no music training: a laboratory study

The melodic alarm sound set for medical electrical equipment that was recommended in the International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601‐1‐8 standard has proven difficult for clinicians to

Medical audible alarms: a review

  • J. Edworthy
  • Computer Science
    J. Am. Medical Informatics Assoc.
  • 2013
TLDR
This paper summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised, and proposes approaches to reducing alarm fatigue.

Recommendation of New Medical Alarms Based on Audibility, Identifiability, and Detectability in a Randomized, Simulation-Based Study.

TLDR
A set of eight auditory icon alarms that were selected through formative testing and validated through summative testing for adoption by relevant regulatory bodies and medical device manufacturers are proposed.

Getting Better Hospital Alarm Sounds Into a Global Standard

TLDR
This article describes the process of first designing and then testing potential replacement audible alarm signals for IEC 60601-1-8, starting with the design of several sets of candidate sounds and initial tests on learnability and localizability, followed by testing in simulated clinical environments.

Updating an International Medical Device Standard: A Process for Audible Alarms

TLDR
The progress of this project aimed at improving and updating these sounds according to best practice is charted and the results and the published papers which present those results are summarized.

Medical Audible Alarms and IEC 60601-1-8

TLDR
This symposium discusses and presents progress in developing both new audible alarms for IEC 60601-1-8 and a framework for evaluation, covering the processes of design, usability in middleware, testing sounds in realistic work environment, and masking.

A Review of Design Guidelines for Clinical Auditory Alarms

TLDR
The reported problems with clinical auditory alarms are identified; early and current audio design guidelines are revisited; and recommendations or good-practices on healthcare noise are systematized, considering spectral, temporal and spatial characteristics of auditory alarms.

Testing of Auditory Clinical Alarms in ICU/CCU

TLDR
It can be concluded the auditory alarm designed based on this IEC 60608-1-8:2006 standard is not effective and it is proposed that incorporation of the new alarm frequencies and tones will improve the effectiveness of the alarm signal.

Auditory displays in anesthesiology

TLDR
Auditory display in anesthesia can extend well beyond auditory alarms to displays that give the anesthesiologist a continuous peripheral awareness of patient well being and much more rigorous approaches should be taken to evaluating auditory displays so they add information rather than noise.

The Recognizability and Localizability of Auditory Alarms: Setting Global Medical Device Standards

Objective Four sets of eight audible alarms matching the functions specified in IEC 60601-1-8 were designed using known principles from auditory cognition with the intention that they would be more

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TLDR
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International electrotechnical commission

  • J. Eccles
  • Political Science
    Journal of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers
  • 1920
Meetings of the Advisory Technical Committees of the International Electrotechnical Commission were held in Brussels March 27th to April 1st. The meetings were attended by delegates from eight