"Canadian Raising" in Some Dialects of the Northern United States

  title={"Canadian Raising" in Some Dialects of the Northern United States},
  author={Timothy J. Vance},
  journal={American Speech},
  • T. Vance
  • Published 23 January 1987
  • Sociology
  • American Speech
T HE PRONUNCIATION OF ONTARIO ENGLISH, according to Joos (1942, 141) is nearly identical to that of GENERAL AMERICAN. He notes only two differences of any consequence, and his discussion focuses on one of these, namely the existence of two variants for the diphthongs /ay/ and /aw/ in Ontario. As Joos describes it, the basic Canadian pattern is that these diphthongs have higher starting points before voiceless consonants than in other environments. The examples in (1) illustrate.' 
Canadian Raising Retrospect and Prospect
  • J. Chambers
  • Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique
  • 2006
Abstract Canadian Raising, which makes allophonic variants of the low diphthongs /ai/ and /au/, is evaluated with respect to its diachronic, geographic, and synchronic status. Its origins have been
Dialect contact and phonological reallocation: “Canadian Raising” in the English Fens
This article reports on research carried out in the Fens in Eastern England, a region noted in the dialectological literature as the site of a number of important phonological transitions, most
The Origin of Canadian Raising in Ontario
One of the best known and most controversial features of Canadian English is the vocalic feature labeled by Chambers (1973) as “Canadian Raising”, which affects the /aI/ of right and the /aU/ of lout
Canadian Raising in Chicagoland: The production and perception of a marginal contrast
In some North American English varieties the diphthong /aɪ/ has developed a distinctively higher nucleus before voiceless consonants and also before a flaps, known as Canadian Raising, as it was first described for Canadian English.
Homogeneity and autonomy of Canadian Raising: Homogeneity and autonomy of Canadian Raising
:  “Canadian Raising” is the process in which the low nucleus of the diphthongs /aw/ and /ay/ is raised to “mid” position before voiceless consonants. Although the process is often featured in simple
Origins of Canadian Raising in voiceless-coda effects: A case study in phonologization
Canadian Raising is the best-known of a diverse class of English allophonic height alternations in /ai/ conditioned by coda voicing. The alternations have been independently re-innovated and show a
On phonological variability in Canadian English in Ottawa and Vancouver
A uniform dialect of Canadian English (CE) encompasses a wider territory than that of any other regional variety (Priestley (1951); Woods (1979); cf. Scargill and Warkentyne (1972) for suggested
Canadian Raising, Opacity, and Rephonemicization
  • W. Idsardi
  • Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique
  • 2006
Abstract Canadian Raising—the phonetic changes in vowel quality and quantity in the diphthongs /ai/ and/ au/ before voiceless consonants—has been of considerable importance to phonological theories
! D. Sky Onosson University of Victoria ! This paper examines the phonological process of Canadian Raising, arguing that it is better understood as an allophonic difference of phonetic duration
The Spread of Raising : Opacity, Lexicalization, and Diffusion
Canadian Raising is typically described as the centralization of the nucleus of /ay/ before voiceless segments. However some recent studies in areas affected by Raising have shown that the current


Duration of Syllable Nuclei in English
This study deals with the influence of preceding and following consonants on the duration of stressed vowels and diphthongs in American English. A set of 1263 CNC words, pronounced in an identical
Recent investigations of the history of Chinese have given new support to the view that sound change diffuses gradually across the lexicon. Yet instrumental studies of sound change in progress
The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich
One of the chief aims of this work is to investigate the co-variation of phonological and sociological variables. In order to measure this type of correlation, a record was first taken of each
Competing Changes as a Cause of Residue
In the literature on sound change, much has been made of the neogrammarian doctrine that sound changes operate without exceptions. Without some such hypothesis any description would be a long list of
The Structure of Language
There is a privileged situation in which language appears to be highly systematic; its rules are frequently and patently violated by the student even after he has acquired a certain competence and can make himself understood.
A History of the English Language
JIA History of the English Language has long been considered the standard work on its subject. It is a comprehensive and balanced exploration of all aspects of the historical development of the
The pronunciation of English
This book discusses the theory and practice of phonetic writing in the context of English speech sounds, as well as some of the practical exercises used in phonetic transcription.
The social motivation of a sound change
graphyand settlementhistory of Texas.His inclusionof pejorativeracial terms is a very valuable contribution. His discussion of dialect mixture, obsolescenceand replacement, shows a very keen concern
The social stratification of English in New York City
Part I. Problems and Methods of Analysis: 1. The study of language in its social context 2. First approach to the structure of New York City English 3. The social stratification of English in New
Dental flaps, vowel duration and rule ordering in American English
Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experiment which investigated dental flaps and their effect upon preceding vowel duration in American English. Twenty speakers read a randomized list