"Being Religious" or "Being Spiritual" in America: A Zero-Sum Proposition?

  title={"Being Religious" or "Being Spiritual" in America: A Zero-Sum Proposition?},
  author={Penny Long Marler and Christopher Kirk Hadaway},
  journal={Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion},
Recent discussions of religious attitudes and behavior tend to suggest—and in a few cases, provide evidence—that Americans are becoming “more spiritual” and “less religious.” What do people mean, however, when they say they are “spiritual” or “religious”? Do Americans see these concepts as definitionally or operationally different? If so, does that difference result in a zero-sum dynamic between them? In this article, we explore the relationship between “being religious” and “being spiritual… 

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