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Regioselective glycosylation of flavonoids cannot be easily achieved due to the presence of several hydroxyl groups in flavonoids. This hurdle could be overcome by employing uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), which use nucleotide sugars as sugar donors and diverse compounds including flavonoids as sugar acceptors. Quercetin(More)
Two lower molecular mass OMT genes (ROMT-15 and -17) were cloned from rice and expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. ROMT-15 and -17 metabolized caffeoyl-CoA, flavones and flavonols containing two vicinal hydroxyl groups, although they exhibited different substrate specificities. The position of methylation in both(More)
Hydroxycinnamoyltransferases (HCTs) catalyze the transfer of the cinnamoyl moiety from hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA to various acceptors such as shikimic acid, quinic acid, hydroxylated acid, and glycerol. Four rice HCT homologues (OsHCT1-4) to tobacco HST were cloned, and OsHCT4 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. Using(More)
Plants produce two flavonoid O-pentoses, flavonoid O-xyloside and flavonoid O-arabinoside. However, analyzing their biological properties is difficult because flavonoids are not naturally produced in sufficient quantities. In this study, Escherichia coli was used to synthesize the plant-specific flavonoid O-pentosides quercetin 3-O-xyloside and quercetin(More)
Most flavonoids are glycosylated and the nature of the attached sugar can strongly affect their physiological properties. Although many flavonoid glycosides have been synthesized in Escherichia coli, most of them are glucosylated. In order to synthesize flavonoids attached to alternate sugars such as glucuronic acid and galactoside, E. coli was genetically(More)
Plant O-methyltransferases (OMTs) are known to be involved in methylation of plant secondary metabolites, especially phenylpropanoid and flavonoid compounds. An OMT, ROMT-9, was cloned and characterized from rice using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The blast results for ROMT-9 showed a 73% identity with caffeic acid OMTs from(More)
Two bioactive O-methylflavonoids, sakuranetin (7-O-methylnaringenin) and ponciretin (7-O-methylnaringenin), were synthesized in Escherichia coli. Sakuranetin inhibits germination of Magnaporthe grisea, and ponciretin is a potential inhibitor of Helicobacter pylori. To achieve this, we reconstructed the naringenin biosynthesis pathway in E. coli. First, the(More)
Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites containing several hydroxyl groups that are targets for modification reactions such as methylation and glycosylation. In plants, flavonoids are present as glycones. Although glucose is the most common sugar attached to flavonoids, arabinose, galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose, and xylose are also linked to(More)
Isoflavones are secondary metabolites found mainly in leguminous plants. Their synthesis from flavanones is catalyzed by isoflavone synthase (IFS). We have cloned a isoflavone synthase gene (IFS-Tp) from Trifolium pratense that encodes a predicted 525 amino acids protein, molecular weight 59 kDa, with strong homology to IFS's from other legumes. IFS-Tp was(More)
Within the secondary metabolite class of flavonoids, which consist of more than 10,000 known structures, flavones define one of the largest subgroups. The diverse function of flavones in plants as well as their various roles in the interaction with other organisms offers many potential applications including in human nutrition and pharmacology. We used two(More)