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Many human monoclonal antibodies display poor biophysical properties, such as low stability and a propensity to aggregate. These unfavorable tendencies can be even more pronounced for human antibody fragments, which often require a considerable degree of optimization. In this review, we describe methods for analyzing aggregation and stability of human(More)
Possible self-organizing processes leading to the formation of hierarchies in animal societies are studied. Biological data collected on the eusocial wasp Polistes dominulus Christ are first presented and used as a basis for building simple models. The models rely on a basic positive feedback mechanism, and assume that individuals do not recognize each(More)
1. Isotonic contractions were recorded from the filarial nematode, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae), in an isolated tissue chamber. 2. Nicotine (10(-6) M) and pilocarpine (10(-5) M) increased the spontaneous contractions in the intact filariid, but acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-4) M) and muscarine (10(-5) M) were inactive. 3. When ACh was applied to(More)
The role of calcium in muscle contractility was explored in the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae (Dipetalonema viteae). The parasite was slit open longitudinally and mounted in a smooth-muscle chamber that had been filled with aerated (95% N2/5% CO2) physiological solution at 37 degrees C. Nifedipine (10(-6) M) and cadmium (3 x 10(-5) M) reduced(More)
Concentration-response curves for the blocking action of norepinephrine were determined in the isolated stellate ganglion of the hamster. The blocking effect of norepinephrine on the postganglionic compound action potential from preganglionic nerve stimulation at 0.2 Hz was reduced by phentolamine (10(-5) M), but was not altered by propranolol (10(-6) M).(More)
Drugs that act on calmodulin and protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated in the filariid Acanthocheilonema viteae. The filariid was slit open longitudinally and attached to an isotonic muscle transducer in a warmed (37 C) chamber containing physiologic solution bubbled with 95% N2-5% CO2. The calmodulin inhibitors, trifluoperazine and(More)
The effect of catecholamine uptake inhibitors on blockade by norepinephrine was observed in the isolated stellate ganglion of the hamster. The preganglionic nerve was stimulated, supramaximally, at 0.2 Hz and compound action potentials were recorded from the postganglionic nerve. Norepinephrine blocked ganglionic transmission. The sensitivity of the(More)
  • D Christ
  • 1983
The actions of d-amphetamine on ganglionic transmission in the isolated stellate ganglion of the hamster were observed. Blockade of the compound action potential by d-amphetamine had a slow onset with an onset half-time of 2-5 min. The concentration-blockade relationship for d-amphetamine was not shifted by phentolamine (10(-5) M) or propranolol (10(-6) M).(More)
  • D Christ
  • 1979
The effects of nicotine and hexamethonium on postganglionic discharges elicited by tetanic preganglionic stimulation or muscarinic agonists were observed on the isolated hamster stellate ganglion. The amplitude and duration of the afterdischarges from tetanic preganglionic stimulation in hexamethonium (10-3 M) were smaller than the amplitude and duration of(More)
  • D Christ
  • 1992
Repetitive stimulation (30 Hz, 20 sec) of the preganglionic nerve to the hamster isolated stellate ganglion in a control solution had only small effects on the compound action potentials of the postganglionic nerve (0.2 Hz) after the train. When 10(-5) M d-amphetamine was added to the superfusing solution, the repetitive stimulation induced a post-train(More)