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G protein-coupled receptors represent the largest class of drug discovery targets. Drugs that activate G protein-coupled receptors are classified as either agonists or partial agonists. To study the mechanism whereby these different classes of activating ligands modulate receptor function, we directly monitored ligand-induced conformational changes in the G(More)
During eukaryotic translation initiation, ribosomal 43S complexes scan mRNAs for the correct AUG codon at which to begin translation. Start codon recognition triggers GTP hydrolysis, committing the complex to engagement at that point on the mRNA. While fidelity at this step is essential, the nature of the codon recognition event and the mechanism by which(More)
Metallic surfaces can have unusual effects on fluorophores such as increasing or decreasing the rates of radiative decay and the rates of resonance energy transfer (RET). In the present article we describe the effects of metallic silver island films on the emission spectra, lifetimes, and energy transfer for several fluorophores. The fluorophores are not(More)
Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multifunctional Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid-binding protein, and its overexpression is implicated in malignant transformation of several cancers. In prostate cancer, however, the expression of AnxA2 is lost in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and reappears in the high-grade tumors, suggesting a complex regulation of AnxA2 in the(More)
This work reports the surface functionalization of polymeric PLGA nanoparticles by non-covalent insertion of a homo-bifunctional chemical crosslinker, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) for targeted cancer therapy. We dissolved BS3 in aqueous solution of PVA during formulation of nanoparticles by a modified solid/oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation(More)
The fluorescence of LDS 798 dye in aqueous solution has a very short lifetime of 24 ps, independent of excitation wavelength. The time response of common photon counting detectors depends on the wavelength of the registered photon. In lifetime measurements, the instrument response function (IRF) is usually approximated by the temporal profile of the(More)
It is well known that ultraviolet (UV) radiation may reduce or even abolish the biological activity of proteins and enzymes. UV light, as a component of sunlight, is illuminating all light-exposed parts of living organisms, partly composed of proteins and enzymes. Although a considerable amount of empirical evidence for UV damage has been compiled, no(More)
The molecular motor myosin is proposed to bind to actin and swing its light-chain binding region through a large angle to produce an approximately 10 nm step in motion coupled to changes in the nucleotide state at the active site. To date, however, direct dynamic measurements have largely failed to show changes of that magnitude. Here, we use a cysteine(More)
Metallic surfaces and particles can have dramatic effects on fluorescence, including localized excitation, increased quantum yields, increased photostability and increased distances for resonance energy transfer (RET), and directional emission. While all these effects have not yet been realized in a single system, metal-enhanced fluorescence promises to(More)
High sensitivity detection of DNA is essential for genomics. The intrinsic fluorescence from DNA is very weak and almost all methods for detecting DNA rely on the use of extrinsic fluorescent probes. We show that the intrinsic emission from DNA can be enhanced many-fold by spatial proximity to silver island films. Silver islands are subwavelength size(More)