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G protein-coupled receptors represent the largest class of drug discovery targets. Drugs that activate G protein-coupled receptors are classified as either agonists or partial agonists. To study the mechanism whereby these different classes of activating ligands modulate receptor function, we directly monitored ligand-induced conformational changes in the G(More)
The molecular motor myosin is proposed to bind to actin and swing its light-chain binding region through a large angle to produce an approximately 10 nm step in motion coupled to changes in the nucleotide state at the active site. To date, however, direct dynamic measurements have largely failed to show changes of that magnitude. Here, we use a cysteine(More)
This study examined the effect of H(2)O(2) on the TRPC6 channel and its underlying mechanisms using a TRPC6 heterologous expression system. In TRPC6-expressing HEK293T cells, H(2)O(2) significantly stimulated Ca(2+) entry in a dose-dependent manner. Electrophysiological experiments showed that H(2)O(2) significantly increased TRPC6 channel open probability(More)
Astrocytes outnumber neurons and serve many metabolic and trophic functions in the mammalian brain. Preserving astrocytes is critical for normal brain function as well as for protecting the brain against various insults. Our previous studies have indicated that methylene blue (MB) functions as an alternative electron carrier and enhances brain metabolism.(More)
We report recent achievements in metal-enhanced fluorescence from our laboratory. Several fluorophore systems have been studied on metal particle-coated surfaces and in colloid suspensions. In particular, we describe a distance dependent enhancement on silver island films (SIFs), release of self-quenching of fluorescence near silver particles, and the(More)
Fluorescence detection is a central technology in biological research and biotechnology. A vast array of fluorescent probes are available with diverse spectral properties. These properties were 'engineered' into fluorophores by modification of the chemical structures. Essentially, all present uses of fluorescence rely on the radiation of energy into(More)
PURPOSE To find evidence of retinal vasomotion and to examine the relationship between erythrocyte dynamics and previously observed high-frequency pulsatile blood flow through the choriocapillaris. METHODS An osmotic shock technique was used to encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) dye in erythrocyte ghost cells at a concentration that produced maximum cell(More)
Muscle contraction results from interactions between actin and myosin cross-bridges. Dynamics of this interaction may be quite different in contracting muscle than in vitro because of the molecular crowding. In addition, each cross-bridge of contracting muscle is in a different stage of its mechanochemical cycle, and so temporal measurements are time(More)
We examined the orientational fluctuations of a small number of myosin molecules (approximately three) in working skeletal muscle myofibrils. Myosin light chain 1 (LC1) was labeled with a fluorescent dye and exchanged with the native LC1 of skeletal muscle myofibrils cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-[3(dimethylamino) propyl] carbodiimide to prevent shortening.(More)
Metallic surfaces and particles can have dramatic effects on fluorescence, including localized excitation, increased quantum yields, increased photostability and increased distances for resonance energy transfer (RET), and directional emission. While all these effects have not yet been realized in a single system, metal-enhanced fluorescence promises to(More)