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Posttranslational modifications play key roles in regulating chromatin plasticity. Although various chromatin-remodeling enzymes have been described that respond to specific histone modifications, little is known about the role of poly[adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] in chromatin remodeling. Here, we identify a chromatin-remodeling enzyme, ALC1(More)
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a complex cancer susceptibility disorder associated with DNA repair defects and infertility, yet the precise function of the FA proteins in genome maintenance remains unclear. Here we report that C. elegans FANCD2 (fcd-2) is dispensable for normal meiotic recombination but is required in crossover defective mutants to prevent(More)
The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is implicated in DNA repair and cancer predisposition. Central to this pathway is the FA core complex, which is targeted to chromatin by FANCM and FAAP24 following replication stress. Here we show that FANCM and FAAP24 interact with the checkpoint protein HCLK2 independently of the FA core complex. In addition to defects in(More)
During the evolution of cancer, the incipient tumour experiences 'oncogenic stress', which evokes a counter-response to eliminate such hazardous cells. However, the nature of this stress remains elusive, as does the inducible anti-cancer barrier that elicits growth arrest or cell death. Here we show that in clinical specimens from different stages of human(More)
TEL2 interacts with and is essential for the stability of all phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs), but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we show that TEL2 is constitutively phosphorylated on conserved serines 487 and 491 by casein kinase 2 (CK2). Proteomic analyses establish that the CK2 phosphosite of TEL2 confers binding to(More)
The ATM kinase is a tumour suppressor and a key activator of genome integrity checkpoints in mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) and other insults that elicit DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In response to IR, autophosphorylation on serine 1981 causes dissociation of ATM dimers and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. Here, we show that(More)
The genes involved in the transformation of kidney blastema cells were searched for in avian nephroblastomas induced by the MAV2 retrovirus. The twist gene was identified as a common site of provirus integration in tumor cells. Twist was rearranged by the MAV2 provirus in three out of 76 independent nephroblastoma samples. The MAV2 integration sites were(More)
MDC1 and 53BP1 are critical components of the DNA damage response (DDR) machinery that protects genome integrity and guards against cancer, yet the tissue expression patterns and involvement of these two DDR adaptors/mediators in human tumours remain largely unknown. Here we optimized immunohistochemical analyses of human 53BP1 and MDC1 proteins in situ and(More)
Cellular senescence guards against cancer and modulates aging; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that genotoxic drugs capable of inducing premature senescence in normal and cancer cells, such as 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), distamycin A (DMA), aphidicolin and hydroxyurea, persistently activate Janus kinase-signal(More)
The development of blood cells proceeds from pluripotent stem cells through multipotent progenitors into mature elements belonging to at least 8 different lineages. The lineage choice process during which stem cells and progenitors commit to a particular lineage is regulated by a coordinated action of extracellular signals and transcription factors.(More)