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The genetic diversity of Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is extremely limited because of its recent origin coupled with a slow clock rate. Here we identified 2,326 SNPs from 133 genomes of Y. pestis strains that were isolated in China and elsewhere. These SNPs define the genealogy of Y. pestis since its most recent common ancestor. All but(More)
BACKGROUND DFR (different region) analysis has been developed for typing Yesinia pestis in our previous study, and in this study, we extended this method by using 23 DFRs to investigate 909 Chinese Y. pestis strains for validating DFR-based genotyping method and better understanding adaptive microevolution of Y. pestis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS On(More)
Salmonella infection may be increased by alterations in the gastrointestinal tract, including decreased gastric acidity and chronic gastrointestinal disease. Leukocytosis was noted in 25% of patients. In fact, two thirds of the patients had a normal leukocyte count with immature leukocytes, which may be attributable to their relatively impaired(More)
F1 antigen is an attractive candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine against plague. In previous study, the extraction of this antigen from Yersinia pestis is characterized by using organic solvents. In this work, a new purification strategy that produced high-purity F1 antigen from Y. pestis EV76 was developed by the substitution of physical(More)
In this study, a new subunit vaccine that comprised native F1 and recombinant rV270 was evaluated for protective efficacy using mouse, guinea pig and rabbit models in comparison with the live attenuated vaccine EV76. Complete protection against challenging with 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) of virulent Yersinia pestis strain 141 was observed for mice(More)
Long-term protection and antibody response for the subunit vaccine F1-rV270 were determined by using the mouse model. Antibodies to F1 and rV270 were still detectable over a period of 518 days. The complete protection against lethal challenge of Yersinia pestis could be achieved up to day 518 after primary immunization.
BACKGROUND Primary pneumonic plague (PPP) caused by Yersinia pestis is the most threatening clinical form of plague. An outbreak was reported in July 2009 in Qinghai Province, China. METHODS This outbreak was investigated by clinical, epidemiological, bacteriological, and immunological methods. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was(More)
Source tracing of pathogens is critical for the control and prevention of infectious diseases. Genome sequencing by high throughput technologies is currently feasible and popular, leading to the burst of deciphered bacterial genome sequences. Utilizing the flooding genomic data for source tracing of pathogens in outbreaks is promising, and challenging as(More)
BACKGROUND After the earthquake on 14, April 2010 at Yushu in China, a plague epidemic hosted by Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana) became a major public health concern during the reconstruction period. A rapid assessment of the distribution of Himalayan marmot in the area was urgent. The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between(More)
A protein microarray containing 144 known or putative virulence-related proteins of Yersinia pestis was used to evaluate the antibody responses of plague patients. Forty-two proteins were found to be expressed in vivo and antibodies against 14 of them were detected in all patients analyzed, providing potential candidates for novel protective antigens and(More)