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Oryza rufipogon Griff. (common wild rice; CWR) is the ancestor of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Investigation of the genetic structure and diversity of CWR in China will provide information about the origin of cultivated rice and the grain quality and yield. In this study, we used 36 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to assay 889 accessions,(More)
The cytolytic T lymphocyte protease granzyme A (GzmA) initiates a caspase-independent cell death pathway. Here we report that the rate-limiting enzyme of DNA base excision repair, apurinic endonuclease-1 (Ape1), which is also known as redox factor-1 (Ref-1), binds to GzmA and is contained in the SET complex, a macromolecular complex of 270-420 kDa that is(More)
Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Here we show that autophagy is required for reprogramming of somatic cells to form induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Our data indicate that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is downregulated by Sox2 at an early stage of iPSC(More)
Autophagy degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle cellular components that are required for cell survival and tissue homeostasis. However, it is not clear how autophagy is regulated in mammalian cells. WASH (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and SCAR homologue) plays an essential role in endosomal sorting through facilitating tubule(More)
Granzyme A (GzmA) induces a caspase-independent cell death pathway characterized by single-stranded DNA nicks and other features of apoptosis. A GzmA-activated DNase (GAAD) is in an ER associated complex containing pp32 and the GzmA substrates SET, HMG-2, and Ape1. We show that GAAD is NM23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase implicated in suppression of(More)
Granzyme A, a serine protease in the cytotoxic granules of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, induces caspase-independent cell death when introduced into target cells by perforin. Granzyme A induces single-stranded DNA damage as well as rapid loss of cell membrane integrity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential through unknown mechanisms.(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent subtype of liver cancer, and it is characterized by a high rate of recurrence and heterogeneity. Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) may well contribute to both of these pathological properties, but the mechanisms underlying their self-renewal and maintenance are poorly understood. Here, using transcriptome(More)
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) senses cytosolic DNA during viral infection and catalyzes synthesis of the dinucleotide cGAMP, which activates the adaptor STING to initiate antiviral responses. Here we found that deficiency in the carboxypeptidase CCP5 or CCP6 led to susceptibility to DNA viruses. CCP5 and CCP6 were required for activation of the(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are generally reported as innate effector cells for killing virally infected and transformed cells. It is unclear how NK cells evoke adaptive immunity to eradicate tumors. We now demonstrate that the TNF superfamily member, LIGHT, known as TNFSF14 and a T-cell costimulatory molecule, is a critical ligand for the activation of NK(More)
Granzyme (Gzm)M is constitutively highly expressed in NK cells that may play a critical role in NK cell-mediated cytolysis. However, the function of GzmM has been less defined. Just one report showed GzmM induces a caspase-independent death pathway. In this study, we demonstrate a protein transfection reagent Pro-Ject can efficiently transport GzmM into(More)