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Granzyme A (GzmA) induces a caspase-independent cell death pathway characterized by single-stranded DNA nicks and other features of apoptosis. A GzmA-activated DNase (GAAD) is in an ER associated complex containing pp32 and the GzmA substrates SET, HMG-2, and Ape1. We show that GAAD is NM23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase implicated in suppression of(More)
Granzyme (Gzm)M is constitutively highly expressed in NK cells that may play a critical role in NK cell-mediated cytolysis. However, the function of GzmM has been less defined. Just one report showed GzmM induces a caspase-independent death pathway. In this study, we demonstrate a protein transfection reagent Pro-Ject can efficiently transport GzmM into(More)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that degrades cytoplasmic components, thus contributing to cell survival and tissue homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy maintains stem cells in relatively undifferentiated states (stemness) and also contributes to differentiation processes. Autophagy likewise plays a crucial role in(More)
The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protease granzyme A induces caspase-independent cell death in which DNA single-stranded nicking is observed instead of oligonucleosomal fragmentation. A 270- to 420-kDa endoplasmic reticulum-associated complex (SET complex) containing the nucleosome assembly protein SET, the tumor suppressor pp32, and the base excision repair(More)
Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) harbour self-renewal and differentiation properties, accounting for chemotherapy resistance and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms to sustain liver CSCs remain largely unknown. In this study, based on analysis of several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) transcriptome datasets and our experimental data, we find that(More)
Hematopoiesis is fully dependent on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that possess the capacity to self-renew and differentiate into all blood cell lineages. WASH, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and SCAR homologue (WASH) is involved in endosomal sorting as an actin-nucleating protein. Here, we show that conditional WASH deletion in the hematopoietic(More)
WASH (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and SCAR homolog) was identified to function in endosomal sorting via Arp2/3 activation. We previously demonstrated that WASH is a new interactor of BECN1 and present in the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex with AMBRA1. The AMBRA1-DDB1-CUL4A complex is an E3 ligase for K63-linked ubiquitination of BECN1, which is required(More)
The neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) conveys multiple signals via its intracellular death domain. However, how the death domain is activated and interacts with downstream adaptors remains unclear. Here, we report two crystal structures of the p75(NTR) death domain in the form of a non-covalent asymmetric dimer and a Cys379-Cys379 disulfide bond linked(More)
Granzyme M (GzmM), a unique serine protease constitutively expressed in NK cells, is important for granule-mediated cytolysis and can induce rapid caspase-dependent apoptosis of tumor cells. However, few substrates of GzmM have been reported to date, and the mechanism by which this enzyme recognizes and hydrolyzes substrates is unknown. To provide(More)