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Granzyme A (GzmA) induces a caspase-independent cell death pathway characterized by single-stranded DNA nicks and other features of apoptosis. A GzmA-activated DNase (GAAD) is in an ER associated complex containing pp32 and the GzmA substrates SET, HMG-2, and Ape1. We show that GAAD is NM23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase implicated in suppression of(More)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that degrades cytoplasmic components, thus contributing to cell survival and tissue homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy maintains stem cells in relatively undifferentiated states (stemness) and also contributes to differentiation processes. Autophagy likewise plays a crucial role in(More)
The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protease granzyme A induces caspase-independent cell death in which DNA single-stranded nicking is observed instead of oligonucleosomal fragmentation. A 270- to 420-kDa endoplasmic reticulum-associated complex (SET complex) containing the nucleosome assembly protein SET, the tumor suppressor pp32, and the base excision repair(More)
Hematopoiesis is fully dependent on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that possess the capacity to self-renew and differentiate into all blood cell lineages. WASH, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and SCAR homologue (WASH) is involved in endosomal sorting as an actin-nucleating protein. Here, we show that conditional WASH deletion in the hematopoietic(More)
Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) harbour self-renewal and differentiation properties, accounting for chemotherapy resistance and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms to sustain liver CSCs remain largely unknown. In this study, based on analysis of several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) transcriptome datasets and our experimental data, we find that(More)
The neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) conveys multiple signals via its intracellular death domain. However, how the death domain is activated and interacts with downstream adaptors remains unclear. Here, we report two crystal structures of the p75(NTR) death domain in the form of a non-covalent asymmetric dimer and a Cys379-Cys379 disulfide bond linked(More)
WASH (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and SCAR homolog) was identified to function in endosomal sorting via Arp2/3 activation. We previously demonstrated that WASH is a new interactor of BECN1 and present in the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex with AMBRA1. The AMBRA1-DDB1-CUL4A complex is an E3 ligase for K63-linked ubiquitination of BECN1, which is required(More)
Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Bladder cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been isolated recently but have not been defined yet. Here we sorted BCSCs from bladder tumor tissues or normal bladder stem cells (NBBCs) from adjacent normal bladder tissues. We found that the C228T mutation (chr5, 1, 295, 228 C > T) of TERT(More)
RNA virus infection is recognized by the RIG-I family of receptors that activate the mitochondrial adaptor MAVS, leading to the clearance of viruses. Antiviral signalling activation requires strict modulation to avoid damage to the host from exacerbated inflammation. Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate (IRTKS) participates in actin bundling and(More)
Bone marrow progenitor cells develop into mature megakaryocytes (MKs) to produce platelets for hemostasis and other physiological functions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying megakaryopoiesis are not completely defined. We show that cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) 6 deficiency in mice causes enlarged spleens and increased platelet counts with(More)