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In this paper, we propose an adaptive audio watermarking scheme based on kernel fuzzy c-means (KFCM) clustering algorithm, which possesses robust ability against common signal processing and desynchronization attacks. The original audio signal is partitioned into audio frames and then each audio frame is further divided as two sub-frames. In order to resist(More)
A Spread Spectrum-based fragile software watermarking scheme is proposed in this paper. The algorithm extracts a vector of instruction-group frequencies from all basic blocks of original program and constructs a vector matrix. Furthermore, the scheme generates watermark based on the principal component analysis (PCA) technique and modifies the vector matrix(More)
With the development of Internet, the integrity protection of web pages has become an important problem. A fragile watermarking scheme based on hash function for web pages is proposed in this paper. Watermarks are generated by using hash function and these watermarks are related to the web page's content. Then, the watermarks are embedded into the tags and(More)
Aiming at the multi-objective essence of optimal audio watermarking problem , we propose a novel audio watermarking framework in this paper, which can optimally balance all conflicting objectives of the problem, fidelity and robustness against different attacks. In the proposed framework, a multi-objective particle swarm optimization technique based on(More)
For copyright protection of digital image, we present an energy quantization modulation approach for digital image watermarking in this paper. First, we introduce the concept of local energy index of a coefficient block in approximation sub-band of an image. Second, an energy quantization modulation technique is developed to modulate the local energy index(More)
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