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Today most routers consist of line cards and centralized switching fabrics. It is now more and more difficult to increase the speed of line cards. Each generation of routers consume more power, and it gets more difficult to package a router in one rack of equipment. The research on routers shifts from single-rack systems to multi-rack ones. Most switches in(More)
The rapid growth of user traffic in the Internet is driving routers to run at increasing bit-rates and have a very large number of ports. However, it is becoming more difficult to just increase the speed of ports. In a router, the centralized switching fabric is the single point of failure (SPF). As the number of line cards increases, the centralized(More)
The exponential growth of user traffic has been driving routers to run at higher capacity. In a traditional router, the centralized switching fabric is becoming the bottleneck for its limited number of ports and complicated scheduling algorithms. Direct networks, such as 3-D Torus topology, have been successfully applied to the design of scalable routers.(More)
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