Zuhair K. Ballas

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Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within specific sequence contexts (CpG motifs) are detected, like bacterial or viral DNA, as a danger signal by the vertebrate immune system. CpG ODN synthesized with a nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate backbone have been shown to be potent Th1-directed adjuvants in mice, but these(More)
The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) and the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI) have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing the "Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment(More)
Immune stimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) with unmethylated CpG motifs are potent inducers of both innate and adaptive immunity. It initially appeared that a single type of optimal CpG motif would work in all applications. We now report that specific motifs of CpG ODN can vary dramatically in their ability to induce individual immune effects and that(More)
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare syndrome associated with aberrant development of the hair, teeth, and eccrine sweat glands (1). The majority of cases of HED are X-linked and are due to mutations of the gene coding for ectodysplasin-A, a member of the TNF superfamily (2). A minority of cases are autosomal recessive and are due to mutations(More)
Tumor metastasis plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients. Among solid tumors that undergo metastasis, there is often a predilection to metastasize to a particular organ with, for example, prostate cancer preferentially metastasizing to bones and colon cancer preferentially metastasizing to the liver. Although many factors are(More)
Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide with neurotransmitter and immunoregulatory properties. In murine schistosomiasis, ova naturally induce liver and intestinal granulomas. These granulomas contain macrophages, and eosinophils that produce SP. A report showed that human blood monocytes isolated by adherence release interleukin-1 (IL-1) in response to SP(More)
The murine cytomegalovirus-encoded protein m157 is a cognate ligand for both inhibitory and activating receptors expressed by natural killer cells. Additionally, m157 is expressed on the surface of infected cells by a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Although endogenous GPI-anchored proteins are known to be ligands for the NK cell receptor, NKG2D,(More)
PREFACE The purpose of this Practice Parameter for the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Immunodeficiency is to provide the consultant allergist/immunologist with a practical guide for the clinical recognition and diagnosis of immunodeficiency, along with the general principles that guide management of The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and(More)
X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a primary humoral immunodeficiency characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to infection. Although there is increased awareness of autoimmune and inflammatory complications in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), the spectrum of gastrointestinal manifestations has not previously been fully explored. We(More)