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Stimulation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) transiently increased the intracellular concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This increase could be blunted by increasing the intracellular concentration of the scavenging enzyme catalase or by the chemical antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. The response of(More)
Human diploid fibroblasts eventually lose the capacity to replicate in culture and enter a viable but nonproliferative state of senescence. Recently, it has been demonstrated that retroviral-mediated gene transfer into primary fibroblasts of an activated ras gene (V12ras) rapidly accelerates development of the senescent phenotype. Using this in vitro(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by the selective loss of striatal projection neurons. In early stages of HD, neurodegeneration preferentially occurs in the lateral globus pallidus (LGP) and substantia nigra (SN), two regions in which the axons of striatal neurons terminate. Here we report that in mice expressing full-length mutant huntingtin and(More)
The signal transduction pathway leading to the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB remains incompletely characterized. We demonstrate that in HeLa cells, transient expression of a constitutively active mutant of the small GTP-binding protein rac1 (V12rac1) leads to a significant increase in NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. In addition,(More)
The 42 amino acid form of beta amyloid (Abeta42) plays a pivotal role in neurotoxicity and the activation of mononuclear phagocytes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our recent study revealed that FPRL1, a G-protein-coupled receptor, mediates the chemotactic and activating effect of Abeta42 on mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes and microglia), suggesting that(More)
We used targeted gene disruption in mice to ablate nonmuscle myosin heavy chain B (NMHC-B), one of the two isoforms of nonmuscle myosin II present in all vertebrate cells. Approximately 65% of the NMHC-B-/- embryos died prior to birth, and those that were born suffered from congestive heart failure and died during the first day. No abnormalities were(More)
In a variety of non-phagocytic cell types, there is a marked increase in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide and H2O2, after ligand stimulation. We demonstrate that in NIH 3T3 cells transient expression of constitutively activated forms of the small GTP-binding proteins Ras or Rac1 leads to a significant increase in(More)
The retinoid-X receptor (RXR) regulates multiple hormonal pathways through heterodimerization with nuclear receptors such as the all-trans retinoic acid receptor (RAR). The orphan nuclear receptor NGFI-B (also called Nur77) can heterodimerize with RXR. Here we show that nerve growth factor (NGF) induces the phosphorylation of Ser 105 of NGFI-B in PC12(More)
Leakage of mitochondrial oxidants contributes to a variety of harmful conditions ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to cellular senescence. We describe here, however, a physiological and heretofore unrecognized role for mitochondrial oxidant release. Mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is demonstrated to activate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK).(More)
We describe the lesions of extrapulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) affecting the lymph nodes of the mediastinum and retroperitoneum in 22 women (mean age +/- SD, 42.4+/-10.5 years). In most of these patients, the diagnosis of extrapulmonary LAM preceded that of pulmonary LAM, usually by 1 to 2 years. Eleven patients had distinct symptoms, including(More)