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The central nervous system (CNS) is an immune-privileged site where the role of immune cells and mediators in traumatic brain injury is poorly understood. Previously we have demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-6, a cytokine that acts on a wide range of tissues influencing cell growth and differentiation, is an agonist for vascular endothelial growth factor(More)
Migration of leukocytes through an in vitro, cell culture model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) composed of murine brain microvessel endothelial (En) cells and astrocytes, and in vivo in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), was investigated. We have recently shown that the adhesiveness of cultured murine brain microvascular endothelial cells for(More)
Murine brain microvessel endothelial cells and smooth muscle/pericytes (SM/P) cells were cultured from newborn BALB/c (normal strain) and SJL/j (autoimmune-prone strain) mice. These cells were evaluated for their ability to produce interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 cytokines. The expression of mRNA for IL-1 and IL-6 was shown in highly purified BALB/c endothelial(More)
Here, Zsuzsa Fabry and colleagues address the question of whether the unique cellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to the observed differences in immunological functions between the CNS and other organs. In particular, they discuss the significance within the CNS of the blood-brain barrier, the nonconstitutive expression of(More)
Brain endothelial cells (BECs), specialized cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), are ideally positioned to monitor and respond to events in the periphery. The present study examined their potential role in transducing immune signals to the brain and in responding to noxious stimuli. BECs were isolated from rhesus monkeys at 3 age points (fetal/neonatal,(More)
Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin (GSA) is a valuable histochemical tool in the identification of endothelium. In this study GSA labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (GSA-FITC) was used to purify cultures of murine cerebral microvascular endothelium. Cultures were stained with GSA-FITC, then sorted using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS).(More)
The mechanisms for the initiation of immune reactions in the central nervous system are poorly understood. In this report, we describe the presence of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Lgp 55 (suggested mouse homologue of human intercellular adhesion molecule-2, ICAM-2) on the surface of brain microvessel endothelium (EN) cells and show in(More)
Splenocyte proliferation as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation was detected when brain microvessel smooth muscle cells (SM) were cocultured with syngeneic spleen cells. This report focuses on the role of different lymphocyte populations in this activation. The central role of CD4+ T cells in the proliferation response has been established by different(More)
Granulomas are the interface between host and mycobacteria, and are crucial for the surivival of both species. While macrophages are the main cellular component of these lesions, different lymphocyte subpopulations within the lesions also play important roles. Lymphocytes are continuously recruited into these inflammatory lesions via local vessels to(More)
Cellular elements of the vascular wall, such as endothelium (En) and smooth muscle cells/pericytes (SM/P) possess important immunologic properties. We have previously reported that murine brain microvessel En cells and SM/P express Major Histocompatibility (MHC) class II molecules and activate syngeneic CD4+ T cells in a class II dependent way. Herein we(More)