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Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular primary headache disorder. The pathomechanism is not clear, but extensive preclinical and clinical studies are ongoing. The structural basis of the leading hypothesis is the trigeminovascular system, which includes the trigeminal ganglion, the meningeal vasculature, and the distinct nuclei of the brainstem, the(More)
The pathomechanism of neurodegenerative disorders still poses a challenge to neuroscientists, and continuous research is under way with the aim of attaining an understanding of the exact background of these devastating diseases. The pathomechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with characteristic neuropathological features such as extracellular(More)
Glutamatergic neurotransmission, of special importance in the human brain, is implicated in key brain functions such as synaptic plasticity and memory. The excessive activation of N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may result in excitotoxic neuronal damage; this process has been implicated in the pathomechanism of different neurodegenerative disorders,(More)
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which axonal transection takes place in parallel with acute inflammation to various, individual extents. The importance of the kynurenine pathway in the physiological functions and pathological processes of the nervous system has been extensively investigated, but it has(More)
Dementia is a common neuropsychological disorder with an increasing incidence. The most prevalent type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. The underlying pathophysiological features of the cognitive decline are neurodegenerative processes, a cerebrovascular dysfunction and immunological alterations. The therapeutic approaches are still limited, although(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with prominent motor and non-motor symptoms. Psychosis develops in over 40% of PD patients and it is one of the most distressing symptoms for patients and caregivers alike. Until recently, atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and quetiapine were used to treat psychotic symptoms, but(More)
Parkinson's disease is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder presenting with characteristic motor symptoms. Non-motor dysfunctions and therapyrelated complications frequently develop, but are often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Levodopa- induced dyskinesia and impulse control disorders are suggested to share pathophysiological processes and m a(More)
Migraine and neuropathic pain are common causes of chronic pain. The exact pathomechanism has not been fully clarified for either disorder, but their pathophysiological backgrounds involve several similar mechanisms. Peripheral sensitization occurs in the neuronal elements of the dorsal root ganglion or the trigeminal ganglion, while central sensitization(More)
INTRODUCTION A number of drugs are available for acute migraine treatment, but they are not all effective for all patients and all attacks. The safety profiles of migraine drugs limit their use in patients with certain comorbid conditions, and adverse effects may also reduce the level of patient compliance. AREAS COVERED The different types of acute(More)